Table 6

Systematic reviews

AuthorsTime span and studies meeting inclusion criteriaHealthcare settingDisease areas coveredUnit of analysisPatient experience focus (and measurement methods)Safety and effectiveness measure—association demonstrated -Safety and effectiveness measure—association not demonstratedAssocs found vs not found
Blasi et al711974–1998, 4 of 25Range of settingsAsthma, hypertension, cancer, insomnia, menopause, obesity, tonsillitisPProvider behaviour and communication (grading of consultations)Health status, symptom improvement, treatment effectiveness, fear of injection, anxiety, ratings of pain, number of doctor visits, pain, speed of recoveryComfort, recovery time, return visits9/3
Drotar291998–2008, 4 of 22Range of settingsAsthma, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritisPPhysician and staff behaviour (surveys, interviews, medical records)Treatment adherence, compliance, office visits, phone calls, hospitalisationsMedication adherence5/1
Hall et al721990–2009, 10 of 14Range of settingsBrain injury, musculoskeletal conditions, cardiac conditions, trauma, back, neck and shoulder painPTherapist-patient relationship, therapeutic alliance (surveys, audio/video taped session)Adherence, employment status, physical training, therapeutic success, perceived effect of treatment, pain, physical function, depression, general health status, attendance, floor-bench lifts, global assessment scores, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), mobilityWeekly physical training, disability, productivity, depression, functional status, adherence18/6
Stevenson et al731991–2000, 7 of 134Range of settingsHypertension, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, ovarian cancer, epilepsy, hyperlipidaemiaPDoctor–patient communication (surveys)Self-reported adherence, blood pressure control, general physician practice visits, hospitalisations, emergency room visits for children with asthma, quality of life for COPD patients, oral contraceptive adherence, adherence to antiepileptic drugs, pain control following gynaecological surgery, adherence to medication for depressionLength of visits to doctor for asthma patients, health status and use of healthcare services for epilepsy patients, adherence to Niacin and bile acid sequestrant therapy9/5
Saultz and Lochner441967–2002, 41 studiesRange of settingsVariedPContinuity of care —ongoing relationship between individual doctor and patient (surveys, continuity of care index)Hospitalisation rate, hospital readmission, length of stay, influenza immunisation, preventive care, antibiotic compliance, intensive care unit days, Neonatal morbidity, Apgar score, Birth weight, rates and timeliness of childhood immunisations, health-related quality of life, recommended diabetes care measures, glucose control, PAP tests, mammogram rate, breast exams, surgical operation rates, hypertension control, presence of depression, relationship problems, adverse events in hospitalsed patients, degree of patient enablement, rheumatic fever incidenceDiabetes (HbA1C, lipid control, blood pressure control, presence of diabetic complications), blood glucose control, functional ability of elderly patients, compliance with antibiotic therapy, well-child visits, blood pressure checks in women, pregnancy complications, newborn mortality, immunization rates, NICU admissions, Apgar scores, caesarean rate, length of labour, indications for tonsillectomy51/30
Hall, Roter and Katz74Meta-analysis 41 studiesRange of settingsVariedPClinician–patient communication (surveys, interviews, observations, assessment of video or audio)Compliance (with 4 variables of PE), recall/understanding (with 4 variables of PE)Compliance (with 1 variable of PE), recall/understanding (with 1 variable of PE)8/2
Jackson, C. et al 401984–2008, 3 of 17Range of settingsInflammatory bowel diseasePTrust in physician, Patient–physician agreement, adequacy information (surveys)Adherence to treatmentCompliance2/1
Sans-Coralles et al431984–2005, 9 of 20Primary careNo specific disease focusPContinuity of care, coordination of care, consultation time, doctor–patient relationship (validated tools in these different domains)Hospital admissions, length of stay, compliance, recovery from discomfort, emotional health, diagnostic tests, referrals, quality of care for asthma, diabetes and angina, symptom burden, receipt of preventive servicesEnablement13/1
Hsiao and Boult451984–2003, 3 of 14Primary careNo specific disease focusPContinuity with physician (surveys, interviews, medical records, chart reviews)Hospitalisations for all conditions and ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, odds of hospitalisation(2), healthcare costs(2), emergency department visits, emergent hospital admissions(2), length of stay, diabetes recognition, mental health(2), pain, perception of health, well-being, BMI, triglyceride concentrations, recovery, clinical outcomes, self-reported healthAcute ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, mobility, pain, emotion, activities of daily living, smoking, BMI, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, self-reported health, glycaemic control, diabetes control, frequency of hypoglycaemic reactions, blood sugar, weight21/15
Arbuthnott et al30Meta analysis, 1955–2007, All 48 studies includedRange of settingsAsthma, bacterial infection, flbromyalgia, diabetes, renal disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, inflammatory bowel disease, breast cancer, HIV and tuberculosisPPhysician–patient collaboration (Observation, surveys)Medication adherence, behavioural adherenceAppointment adherence2/1
Stewart751983–1993, 21 studiesRange of settingsPeptic ulcers, breast cancer, diabetes, hypertension, headache, coronary artery disease, gingivitis, tuberculosis, prostate cancerPPhysician–patient communication (surveys, evaluation of audio- or videotape recording)Peptic ulcer physical limitation, blood glucose levels, blood pressure, headache resolution, physician evaluation of symptom resolution for coronary artery disease, gingivitis and tuberculosis, anxiety level in gynaecological care, radiation therapy, breast cancer care, functional status following radiation therapy for prostate cancer, anxiety after radiation therapy, pain levels and hospital length of stay after intra-abdominal surgery, physical and psychological complaints in breast cancer careDetails not included16/5
Zolnierek and DiMatteo28Meta analysis 1949–2008, 127 studiesRange of settingsNo specific disease focusPPhysician–patient communication (observation, surveys)Adherence to treatment recommended by clinicianAdherence (2 observational studies)125/2
Beck et al761975–2000, 5 of 14Primary careNo specific disease focusPPhysician–patient communication (observation, evaluation of audio and video tapes)Compliance with doctors’ advice, blood pressure, pill countNone10/0
Cabana and Lee211966–2002, 7 of 18Range of settingsRheumatoid arthritis, epilepsy, breast cancer, cervical cancer, diabetesPContinuity of care (validated measures of continuity eg, SCOC)Hospitalisations, length of stay, emergency department visits, intensive care days, preventive medicine visits, drug or alcohol abuse, outpatient attendance, glucose control for adults with diabetesNone18/5
Richards et al771997–2002, 2 of 33Range of settingsPsoriasisPPatient's perception of care, satisfaction, interpersonal skills (surveys, interviews)Treatment adherence, medication useNone2/0
  • BMI, body mass index.