Table 5

Individual studies

AuthorType of study, sample size, countrySettingDisease focusUnit of analysis (patient (P) or org (O)Patient experience focus and method usedSafety and effectiveness measureAssociation demonstratedAssociation not demonstratedAssoc. Found vs NOT found
Chang et al48Cohort study, 236 patients, USAManaged care organisation22 clinical conditionsPProviders communication (The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey and ‘Quality of care’)Technical quality and patient global ratings (medical records and patient interviews)NoneTechnical quality of care0/1
Sequist et al24Cross-sectional study, 492 settings, USAPrimary careCervical, breast and colorectal cancer, chlamydia, cardiovascular conditions, asthma, diabetesPDoctor–patient communication, clinical team interactions, organisational features of care (The Ambulatory Care Experiences survey)Clinical quality focusing on disease prevention, disease management and outcomes of care (Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS))Cervical cancer, breast cancer and colorectal cancer screening, Chlamydia screening, Cholesterol screening (cardiac), LDL cholesterol testing (diabetes), eye exams (diabetes), HbA1c testing, nephropathy screeningCholesterol management, HbA1c control, LDL cholesterol control, blood pressure control9/4
Burgers et al55Survey, 8973 patients, RangeRange of settingsChronic lung, mental health, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, cancerPCoordination of care and overall experience (Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey)Death scoreDeath scoreNone1/0
Kaplan et al25Randomised control trial, 252 patients, USARange of settingsUlcer disease, hypertension, diabetes, breast cancerPPhysician–patient communication (assessment of audio tape and questionnaire)Physiological measures taken at visit and patients’ self-rated health status survey.Follow-up blood glucose and blood pressure, functional health status, self-reported health status.None4/0
Jha et al23Cross-sectional study, 2429 settings, USAHospitalAcute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, pneumonia complications from surgeryOPatient communication with clinicians, experience of nursing services, discharge planning (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey)Technical quality of care using Hospital Quality Alliance (HQA) scoreTechnical quality of care in AMI, congestive heart failure (CHF), pneumonia, surgical careNone4/0
Rao et al47Cross-sectional study, 3487 patients, UKPrimary careHypertension, Influenza vaccinationPOlder patients’ experience of technical quality of care (General Practice Assessment survey)Technical quality of care—(medical records)NoneHypertension monitoring and control, influenza vaccination.0/3
Meterko et al26Cohort study, 1858 patients, USAVeteran Affairs Medical CentresAcute myocardial infarctionPPatient-centred care, access, courtesy, information, coordination, patient preferences, emotional support, family involvement, physical comfort (VA Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP))Survival 1-year postdischargeSurvival 1-year post dischargeNone1/0
Vincent et al56Cohort survey 227 patients, UKRange of settingsVariedPAccountability, explanation, standards of care, compensation (questionnaire)Legal actionLegal actionNone1/0
Agoritsas et al57Cohort patient survey, 1518 patients, SwitzerlandHospitalVariedPGlobal rating of care and respect and dignity questions (Picker survey)Patient reports of undesirable events (survey)Neglect of important information by healthcare staff, pain control, needless repetition of a test, being handled with roughnessNone4/0
Flocke et al37Cross-sectional study, 2889 patients, USAPrimary careVariedPInterpersonal communication, physician's knowledge of patient, coordination (Components of Primary Care Instrument (CPCI))Use of preventive care services (screening, health habit counselling services, immunisation services)Screening, health habit counselling, immunisationNone3/0
Jackson, J. et al58Quantitative cohort study 500 patients, USAGeneral medicine walk-in clinicVariedPPatient satisfaction (Research and Development (RAND) 9-item survey)Functional status (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-6)), symptom resolution, (RAND 9-item survey), follow-up visitsSymptom resolution, repeat visits, functional statusNone3/0
Clark et al41Randomised control trial 731 patients, USARange of settingsAsthmaPPatient experience of physician communication (patient interviews and Likert scale)Emergency department visits, hospitalisations, office phone calls and visits, urgent office visits (survey+medical chart review of 6% of patients to verify responses)Number of office visits, emergency visits, urgent office visits, phone calls, hospitalisationsNone5/0
Raiz et al20Quantitative cohort study, 357 patients, USAPrimary careRenal transplantPPatient faith in doctor (Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC))Medication complianceRemembering medications, taking medications as prescribedNone2/0
Kahn et al32Cohort study, 881 patients, USAHospitalsBreast cancerPLevel of physician support, participation in decision-making and information on side effects (survey)Medication adherenceOngoing tamoxifen useNone1/0
Plomondon et al22Cohort study, 1815 patients, USAHospitalMyocardial infarctionPSatisfaction with explanations from their doctor, overall satisfaction with treatment (Seattle Angina questionnaire)Presence of angina (Seattle Angina Questionnaire)Presence of anginaNone1/0
Fuertes et al19Survey, 152 patients, USAHospitalNeurologyPPhysician–patient communication, physician–patient working alliance, empathy, multicultural competence (questionnaire)Adherence to medical treatment (adherence Self-Efficacy Scale and Medical Outcome Study (MOS) adherence scale)Adherence to treatmentNone1/0
Lewis et al31Qualitative cohort study, 191 patients, USAPrimary carePainPDoctor–patient communication (survey)Medication adherence (Prescription Drug Use Questionnaire (PDUQ))Use of prescribed opioid medicationsNone1/0
Safran et al59Cross-sectional study, 7204 patients, USAPrimary careVariedPAccessibility, continuity, integration, clinical interaction, interpersonal aspects, trust (The Primary Care Assessment Survey)Adherence to physician's advice, health status, health outcomes (Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), Behavioural risk factor survey)Adherence, health statusHealth outcomes2/1
Alamo et al60Randomised study, 81, SpainPrimary careChronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP), fibromyalgiaPPatient-centreed-care (‘Gatha-Res questionnaire’ and follow-up phone call)Pain (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) anxiety (Oldberg scale of anxiety and depression (GHQ))Anxiety, number of tender points (pain)Pain, pain intensity, pain as a problem, number of associated symptoms, depression, physical mobility, social isolation, emotional reaction, sleep2/10
Fan et al61Survey, 21 689 patients, USAPrimary careCardiac care, diabetes, congestive obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD)PCommunication skills and humanistic qualities of primary care physician (Seattle Outpatient Satisfaction Survey)Physical and emotional aspects, coping ability and symptom burden for angina, COPD and diabetes (Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire (SOLDQ), Diabetes Questionnaire (SDQ))Patient ability to deal with all 3 diseases, education for diabetes patients, angina stability, physical limitation due to anginaSelf-reported physical limitation for angina and COPD, symptom burden for diabetes, complications for diabetes7/4
O'Malley et al38Cross-sectional study, 961 patients, USAPrimary careVariedPPatient trust (survey)Use of preventive care servicesBlood pressure measurement, height and weight measurement, cholesterol check, papanicolaou test (pap) tests, breast cancer screening, colorectal cancer screening, discussion of diet, discussion on depressionNone8/0
Little et al62Survey, 865 patients, UKPrimary carevariedPPatient centredness (Survey)Enablement, symptom burden, resource useEnablement, symptom burden, referralsRe-attendance, investigations3/2
Levinson et al63Qualitative cohort study, 124 physicians, USAPrimary careVariedPPhysician–patient communication (assessment of audiotape)MalpracticeMalpractice claimsNone1/0
Carcaise-Edinboro and Bradley39Cross sectional study, 8488 patients, USAPrimary careColorectal cancerPPatient-provider communication (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey)Colorectal Cancer screening, fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey)CRC screening, fecal occult blood testing, colonoscopyNone3/0
Schneider et al33Cross-sectional analysis study, 554 patients, USAPrimary careHIVPPhysician–patient relationship (survey)Adherence (survey)Adherence to antiretroviral therapyNone1/0
Schoenthaler et al34Cross-sectional study, 439 patients, USAPrimary careHypertensionPPatients’ perceptions of providers’ communication (survey)Medication adherence (Morisky self-report measure)Medication adherenceNone1/0
Slatore et al64Cross-sectional study, 342 patients, USARange of settingsCOPDPPatient–clinician communication (Quality of communication questionnaire (QOC))Self-reported breathing problem confidence and general self-rated health (survey)Confidence in dealing with breathing problemsSelf-rated health1/1
Lee and Lin65Cohort study, 480 patients, TaiwanRange of settingsType 2 diabetesPTrust in physicians (survey)Self-efficacy, adherence, health outcomes (Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire and 12-Item Short-Form Health survey (SF-12))Physical HRQoL, mental HRQoL, body mass index HbA1c, triglycerides, complications, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, adherenceNone9/0
Heisler et al35Survey, 1314 patients, USAPrimary careDiabetesPPhysician communication, physician interaction styles, participatory decision-making (Questionnaire)Disease management (surveys and national databases)Overall self-management, diabetes diet, medication compliance, exercise, blood glucose monitoring, foot care.Exercise6/1
Lee and Lin66Cohort study, 614 patients, TaiwanRange of settingsType 2 diabetesPPatients’ perceptions of support, autonomy, trust, satisfaction (Healthcare Climate Questionnaire and Autonomy Preference Index (API))Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) (medical records) Physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (SF-12)Physical HRQoL, mental HRQoLInformation preference interaction, HbA1C2/2
Kennedy A. et al67Randomised control trial, 700 patients, UKHospitalInflammatory bowel DiseasePPatient-centred-care (interviews)Resource use, self-rated physical and mental health, enablement (patient diaries, questionnaires, medical records)Ability to cope with condition, symptom relapses, hospital visits, appointments madePhysical functioning, role limitations, social functioning, mental health, energy/vitality, pain, general health perception, anxiety, number of relapses, number of medically-defined relapses, average relapse duration, frequency of GP visits, delay before starting treatment4/13
Stewart et al42Observational cohort study, 315 patients, CanadaPrimary careGeneralPPatient-centred communication (assessment of audiotape and Patient-Centred Communication Score tool)Discomfort (VAS) symptom severity severity (Visual Analogue Scale), Health Status (Short Form-36 SF-36) Quality of care provision (chart review by doctors)Symptom discomfort and concern, self-reported health, diagnostic tests, referrals and visits to the family physicianNone5/2
Kinnersley et al68Observational study, 143 patients, UKPrimary careVariedPPatient-centredness (assessment of audiotape and questionnaires)Symptom resolution, resolution of concerns, functional health status (Questionnaire)NoneResolution of symptoms, resolution of concerns, functional health status0/3
Solberg et al51Survey, 3109 patients, USAPrimary care—multispecialty groupVariedPPatient experience of errors (survey)Review of errors (chart audits and physician reviewer judgements)NoneNone1/0
Isaac et al6Cross-sectional study, 927 hospitals, USAHospitalAcute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, pneumonia complications from surgery.OGeneral patient experiences (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey (HCAHPS))Processes of care (Health Quality Alliance (HQA) database) and patient safety indicatorsDecubitus ulcer rates, infections, processes of care for pneumonia, CHF and myocardial infarctions, surgical composites, hemorrage, respiratory failure, DVT, pulmonary embolism, sepsisFailure to rescue11/1
Glickman et al27Cohort study, 3562 patients, USAHospitalAcute myocardial infarctionPPatient satisfaction (Press-Ganey survey)Adherence to practice guidelines, outcomes (CRUSADE quality improvement registry).Inpatient mortality, composite clinical measures, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivalNone3/0
Fremont et al69Survey, 1346 patients, USAHospitalCardiacPPatient-centred care (Picker survey)Processes of care, functional health status, cardiac symptoms (Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire, London School of Hygiene measures for cardiac symptoms)Overall health, chest pain, patient reported general physical and mental health statusMental health, shortness of breath5/2
Riley et al70Survey, 506 patients, CanadaHospitalCardiac care—acute coronaryPContinuity of care (The Heart Continuity of Care Questionnaire, Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, Illness Perception Questionnaire)Participation in cardiac rehabilitation, perception of illness, functional capacity (Duke Activity Status Index (DASI))Cardiac rehabilitation participation, perceptions of illness consequencesNone2/0
Weingart et al49Cohort study, 228 patients, USAHospitalVariedPPatient experience of adverse events (interviews)Adverse events (mMedical records and patient interviews)Adverse eventsNone1/0
Weissman et al50Survey, 998 patients, USAHospitalVariedPPatient experience of adverse events (interviews)Adverse events (medical records)Adverse eventsNone1/0
  • HRQoL, health-related quality of life.