Table 3

Crude mortality in rock and pop stars since point of fame and adjusted HRs using Cox survival analysis

CharacteristicsCrude deathAdjusted HRs
CategoryNDied (%)χ²pHR95% CIsWaldp
TypeLowHigh
Performer type and continentEuropean Band6065.436.32<0.001Ref32.21<0.001
European Solo519.81.120.442.880.060.812
North American Band71810.22.091.393.1612.36<0.001
North American Solo11422.84.242.537.0930.26<0.001
EthnicityNot White16815.58.930.003Ref0.057
White13218.4
SexFemale1147.90.250.616Ref0.416
Male13759.3
Age of fameUnder 25 years84110.83.520.061Ref0.318
25 years or more6488.0
Year of birth≤195552919.7108.95<0.001Ref0.780
1956–19695094.50.644
1970 or later4512.20.482
Year reachedBefore 198050620.6118.24<0.001Ref
Fame1980 or later9833.40.430.280.6714.10<0.001
  • HR, hazard ratio; Ref, reference category.