Table 2

Characteristics of rock and pop star sample by geographical region

CharacteristicsTotalEuropeNorth Americap*
N%N%N%
All1489100657100832100
Male137592.361393.376291.60.216
White132188.763296.268982.8<0.001
Music genre
 Pop/rock135090.761693.873488.2<0.001
 R&B422.830.5394.7<0.001
 Electronica332.2304.630.4<0.001
 New age40.340.600.00.024
 Punk30.230.500.00.051
 Rap573.810.2566.7<0.001
Solo performer16511.1517.811413.7<0.001
Died by 20/02/20121379.2385.89911.9<0.001
Likely cause of death (% of dead)
 1 Chronic disorder (drug/alcohol)†107.312.699.10.193
 2 Drug/alcohol overdose2518.21026.31515.20.130
 3 Accident (drug/alcohol related)75.1410.533.00.074
 4 Suicide42.912.633.00.901
 5 Violence75.112.666.10.414
 6 Other accident1913.9513.21414.10.881
 7 Cardiovascular disease2115.3410.51717.20.334
 8 Cancer2518.2821.11717.20.599
 9 Other1813.9310.51515.20.483
 (1–5) All substance use or risk related5338.71744.73636.40.368
  • *p (probability) describes differences between North American and European rock and pop stars. Percentages are compared using χ².

  • †Chronic drug and alcohol disorders include liver, kidney and gastrointestinal diseases linked with substance use.