Table 2

Smoking-related outcomes

Non-smokers N=1483Smokers N=493
MeanSDMeanSDDifference of meansp Value
Age at baseline, years55.722.5055.542.38−0.20.17
Body mass index (BMI)27.293.5126.013.81−1.3<0.001
Mean systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)135.9317.43133.4318.18−2.50.007
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)
Years of education8.193.327.522.74−0.7<0.001
Age at death, years80.718.4072.138.89−8.6<0.001
Life years lost due to smoking009.198.159,2<0.001
Age at retirement, years56.605.8955.356.23−1.3<0.001
Years of receiving pension23.699.1116.429.39−7.3<0.001
Number of hospitalisations10.7412.3410.8410.890.10.88
Number of inpatient days88.47235.25101.55216.2313.10.28
Years of smoking (at baseline)2.698.9631.819.7229.1<0.001
Annual income, €34060221802751017.730−6550<0.001
Occupational productivity lost due to smoking, €00343702708034370<0.001
Income taxes lost due to smoking, €00116601255011660<0.001
Annual pension, €2044013330161809730−4260<0.001
Reduced pension costs due to smoking,€00126850148120126850<0.001
Reduced income taxes paid from pensions, €00342304865034230<0.001
Annual healthcare costs/living individuals, €3420987050401065016200.003
Total healthcare costs, €7929017342074570154950−47200.59
Tobacco tax paid, €21908860503003245048110<0.001
Life years lost due to smoking, €00203960180890203960<0.001
Total costs, life years lost not included, €77110173840−56680195130−133790<0.001
Total costs, life years lost included, €7711017384014728019596070170<0.001
  • Total costs of smoking versus non-smoking were calculated by taking into account the life-long difference (€/person) of healthcare costs (€4720), tobacco taxes paid (€48110), income taxes lost (€11660), reduced pension costs (€126850) and reduced taxes paid from pensions (€34230). The smoking-related harms for the society were €11660+€34230=€45890, and the smoking-related benefits for the society were €4720+€48110+€126850=€179680, and thus the net effect on public finance balance was €133790 positive for each smoking individual. When the value of 9.19 life years lost due to smoking (€203960) was taken into account, the net effect became €70170 negative for each smoking individual. ‘Income taxes lost due to smoking’ indicate the loss due to earlier disability/retirement, and ‘Pension costs’ indicate the pensions paid by the state and pension companies. The value of one quality adjusted life year lost was estimated to be 0.74×€30 000=€22200.10 ,25