Table 3

Cronbach's α of the WHO's Violence Against Women instrument psychological, physical and sexual violence scales and total scale, life-time (N=399)

Scalesα if item deleted
Psychological violence
 1 Insulted me in a way that made me feel bad about myself0.66
 2 Belittled and humiliated me in front of other people0.64
 3 Tried to scare and intimidate me on purpose (eg, by the way he/she looked at you, by yelling or smashing things)0.64
 4 Threatened to hurt me or someone I care about0.64
Physical violence
 1 Pushed or shoved me0.87
 2 Thrown something at me that could have hurt me0.82
 3 Hit me with his/her fist or with some other object that could have hurt me0.81
 4 Kicked and dragged me and beat me up0.82
 5 Choked me or burnt me on purpose0.83
 6 Hurt me with a knife, a gun or some other weapon0.85
Sexual violence
 1 Demanded to have sex with me even though I did not want to (but did not use physical force)0.92
 2 Forced me to have sex against my will by using his/her physical strength (by hitting, holding me firmly or threatening me with a weapon)0.71
 3 Forced me to perform sexual acts that I experienced as degrading and/or humiliating0.68
Violence scale, total0.88