Table 4

Average stress levels according to smoking status—among waves (2007 and 2009)

20072009
Stress mean (SD)Stress mean (SD)p Value (F)*
Never smoker
 Male3.70 (2.75)3.83 (2.69)0.31 (1.02)
 Female4.18 (2.70)4.40 (2.90)0.44 (0.60)
Relapsed
 Male3.52 (2.28)4.94 (2.80)0.28 (1.20)
 Female3.96 (2.52)5.24 (3.46)0.01 (7.67)
Quit smoking
 Male4.21 (2.71)4.16 (2.78)0.91 (0.01)
 Female4.38 (3.49)5.03 (3.35)0.13 (2.31)
  • *Repeated measures analysis of variance (p values, F statistic) used to examine overall and gender-specific mean differences in stress levels from 2007 to 2009; adjusted for age in 2009.