Table 1

Greenhouse gas emissions, expressed as CO2 equivalents/kg food produced for consumption in the UK*

Food categoryGHG emissions (kg CO2-e/kg)Inclusions/notesSource
Unprocessed meat
1Beef30.00 DEFRA14
2Lamb50.00 DEFRA14
3Pork10.00 DEFRA14
4Other red meat†30.00Venison, goatMean beef/pork/lamb
5White meat‡4.00Chicken, turkey, game birdsDEFRA14
6Other birds5.32Duck, gooseDEFRA14
Processed meat§
7Processed beef30.00 = Beef
8Processed pork10.00Sausage meat, bacon, ham= Pork
9Processed white meat4.00 = White meat
10Fresh fish/shellfish2.60 Wallen et al 15
11Frozen fish6.50 Wallen et al 15
12Milk1.30Yoghurt, cream, custardDEFRA14
13Cheese9.80 Wallen et al 15
14Ice cream0.64 Wallen et al 15
15Egg3.00 DEFRA14
Starchy staples
16Bread0.73 DEFRA14
17Breakfast cereal1.00 Wallen et al 15
18Pasta0.81 Wallen et al 15
19Rice1.68 Wallen et al 15
20Unprocessed potato0.16 DEFRA14
21Frozen potato0.57 Wallen et al 15
22Other potato products2.37 Wallen et al 15
23Flour/other grains1.00 Wallen et al 15
Fruit and vegetables
24Vegetables (1)0.50Roots, onions, brassicasWallen et al 15
25Vegetables (2)3.30All other, including saladWallen et al 15
26Pulses0.64Dried/tinnedWallen et al 15
27Tomatog 2.00Including tinnedDEFRA14
28Fruit0.40AllWallen et al 15
29Butter0.98 Wallen et al 15
30Margarine2.12 Wallen et al 15
31Cooking oil3.53 Wallen et al 15
32Crispbread/biscuits2.65 Wallen et al 15
33Buns/cakes0.91 Wallen et al 15
34Chocolate/sweets1.80 Wallen et al 15
35Sugar/honey/treacle4.18 Wallen et al 15
36Jam/marmalade0.81Including chutneysWallen et al 15
37Soft beverages0.56 Wallen et al 15
38Mineral water0.56 = Soft beverages
39Alcoholic beverages0.56 = Soft beverages
40Fruit juice/syrup0.99Including cordialsWallen et al 15
41Coffee33.00 DEFRA14
42Tea4.10Including herbal teaDEFRA14
43Cocoa210.00Including hot chocolateDEFRA14
44Tap water0.00Including that in foodsNo data
45Miscellaneous1.85All otherMean of all
  • Further details in web appendix: assumptions and methods used in the derivation of greenhouse gas emissions from food produced for the UK consumers.

  • * Emission estimates are preferentially based on life-cycle analyses. Where emissions vary by production system within and beyond the UK, values are averages weighted on contributions to the UK food supply.

  • The following definitions were used, consistent those used in the meta-analyses of intake-risk associations: †Red meat as beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton and goat, either fresh, minced (including hamburgers) or frozen, but unprocessed other than by cooking with heat. Although processed meats were primarily red meats, the term ‘red meat’ has been used in this report to refer to ‘unprocessed red meat’, unless otherwise specified.‡White meat as meat from poultry, fresh, minced or frozen, but unprocessed other than by cooking with heat.§Processed meat as meat preserved by smoking, curing, salting or addition of nitrates, nitrites or other preservatives. Under this definition, processed meats were primarily red, but included white meats, and included ham, bacon, pastrami, salami, sausages and processed deli or luncheon meats.