Table 2

Unadjusted differences in measures of estimated dietary intake of ω-3 and mean blood levels according to growing pains at 8.5 years

No growing painsGrowing painsp Value
Maternal prenatal FFQ (mean (SD))
 Total ω-30.15 (0.15)0.16 (0.15)0.614
 DHA0.07 (0.07)0.07 (0.07)0.593
 EPA0.05 (0.05)0.05 (0.05)0.654
Breastfeeding duration
 None (20.7%)1172 (77.7%)336 (22.3%)0.193
 Up to 3 months (31.2%)1775 (78.2%)495 (21.8%)
 >3 months (48.2%)2797 (79.7%)712 (20.3%)
Child FFQ at 3 years (mean (SD))
 Total n30.06 (0.06)0.06 (0.05)0.443
 DHA0.02 (0.03)0.03 (0.03)0.449
 EPA0.02 (0.02)0.02 (0.02)0.439
Child FFQ at 6 years (mean (SD))
 Total n30.08 (0.09)0.09 (0.09)0.173
 DHA0.03 (0.04)0.03 (0.04)0.217
 EPA0.02 (0.02)0.02 (0.02)0.233
Child plasma levels at 7 years (mean (SD))
 AA (20:4n6)6.45 (1.32)6.36 (1.32)0.087
 DHA (22:6n3)1.89 (0.52)1.90 (0.53)0.426
 EPA (20:5n3)0.64 (0.20)0.64 (0.20)0.797
 LA (18:2n6)30.6 (3.16)30.7 (3.25)0.511
 ALA (18:3n3)0.71 (0.28)0.72 (0.27)0.318
Maternal prenatal red cell levels (mean (SD))
 AA (20:4n6)6.16 (2.98) 6.11 (2.97)0.727
 DHA (22:6n3)2.32 (1.36)2.25 (1.31)0.215
 EPA (20:5n3)0.27 (0.18)0.27 (0.17)0.331
 LA (18:2n6)11.10 (2.70)10.98 (2.82)0.610
 ALA (18:3n3)0.14 (0.07)0.14 (0.07)0.676
  • AA, arachidonic acid; ALA, α-linolenic acid; DHA, decosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; FFQ, calculated from seafood intake using food frequency questionnaire; LA, linoleic acid.