Table 3

Adjusted HRs with 95% CIs for any CVD, fatal CVD, any acidosis/serious infection, fatal acidosis/serious infection and all-cause mortality in patients with insulin only and patients with metformin only as reference or in patients with other OHA only and patients with metformin only as reference

Events/patients (N/N)Events/patients (N/N)HR (95% CI)p Value
Insulin onlyMetformin onlyInsulin only vs metformin only
Any CVD2389/11 4271734/14 3171.18 (1.07 to 1.29)<0.001
Fatal CVD681/12 285264/14 6961.12 (0.91 to 1.40)0.29
Any acidosis/serious infection1867/11 8601154/14 5171.28 (1.14 to 1.43)<0.001
Fatal acidosis/serious infection325/12 284127/14 6971.45 (1.07 to 1.97)0.019
All-cause mortality2002/12 291971/14 6971.34 (1.19 to 1.50)<0.001
Other OHA onlyMetformin onlyOther OHA only vs metformin only
Any CVD929/49641734/14 3171.02 (0.93 to 1.12)0.71
Fatal CVD237/5171264/14 6961.03 (0.84 to 1.26)0.80
Any acidosis/serious infection623/50621154/14 5171.05 (0.94 to 1.18)0.41
Fatal acidosis/serious infection109/5171127/14 6971.13 (0.83 to 1.53)0.44
All-cause mortality745/5171971/14 6971.13 (1.01 to 1.27)0.032
  • Each comparison was adjusted by stratification with octiles of propensity scores.

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; OHA, oral hypoglycaemic agent.