Table 2

Mean scores and SE of work-related characteristics, health and work–family interference (number of items per scale; range), corrected for sex, employment category, hours worked weekly and presence of chronic disease

<36 years (n=577)36–45 years (n=475)46–55 years (n=475)55+ years (n=211)Fp Value
Mean (SE)Mean (SE)Mean (SE)Mean (SE)
Job demands*
 Unpleasant treatment (6; 1–4)1.08 (0.01)1.06 (0.01)1.06 (0.01)1.08 (0.02)0.450.714
 Role conflict (5; 1–4)1.68 (0.03)1.70 (0.02)1.70 (0.02)1.58 (0.04)2.600.051
 Work pressure (8; 1–5)2.85 (0.04)3.18 (0.04)3.16 (0.04)3.13 (0.06)13.11<0.001
 Role ambiguity (5; 1–4)2.11 (0.04)2.06 (0.03)1.96 (0.03)1.90 (0.05)5.380.001
 Physical workload (3; 1–4)1.71 (0.03)1.58 (0.03)1.60 (0.03)1.55 (0.05)3.570.014
Job resources
 Job security and pay (2; 1–5)2.90 (0.06)3.20 (0.05)3.38 (0.05)3.71 (0.09)23.70<0.001
 Decision authority on working hours (3; 1–5)3.60 (0.05)3.57 (0.05)3.59 (0.05)3.76 (0.08)1.460.224
 Work variety (3; 1–5)3.09 (0.04)3.23 (0.04)3.22 (0.04)3.29 (0.06)3.360.018
 Information on work (3; 1–4)3.00 (0.04)2.86 (0.04)2.99 (0.04)3.01 (0.06)3.110.026
 Career opportunities (3; 1–4)2.64 (0.06)2.68 (0.05)2.52 (0.05)2.47 (0.08)2.630.049
 Communication (4; 1–4)2.56 (0.04)2.64 (0.04)2.70 (0.04)2.78 (0.06)3.780.010
 Professional expertise (2; 1–5)3.85 (0.05)4.03 (0.04)4.11 (0.04)4.15 (0.07)6.69<0.001
 Opportunities for learning (4; 1–4)2.85 (0.04)2.78 (0.04)2.77 (0.04)2.83 (0.06)1.120.341
 Decision latitude (9; 1–4)2.47 (0.04)2.61 (0.03)2.68 (0.03)2.81 (0.05)11.060.000
 Autonomy (1; 1–5)3.40 (0.04)3.46 (0.04)3.46 (0.04)3.57 (0.06)1.710.162
 Social support superiors (4; 1–4)3.18 (0.05)3.05 (0.04)3.10 (0.04)3.19 (0.07)1.760.152
 Social support colleagues (4; 1–4)3.14 (0.04)3.12 (0.03)3.11 (0.03)3.21 (0.06)0.900.440
 Job involvement (1; 1–5)3.84 (0.05)4.12 (0.05)4.27 (0.05)4.40 (0.07)18.82<0.001
 Challenging work (1; 1–5)3.43 (0.06)3.61 (0.05)3.60 (0.05)3.67 (0.08)2.870.035
 Job satisfaction (1; 1–5)3.69 (0.06)3.80 (0.05)3.77 (0.05)4.07 (0.09)4.570.003
Health-related characteristics*
 Fatigue (4; 4–28)13.36 (0.40)13.26 (0.37)13.18 (0.37)11.85 (0.60)1.680.170
 Emotional exhaustion (4; 1–5)2.50 (0.06)2.54 (0.05)2.54 (0.05)2.45 (0.09)0.340.798
 Health complaints (13; 0–13)3.09 (0.15)3.02 (0.14)3.29 (0.14)2.95 (0.23)0.840.472
Work-family interference*
 W→FItime (3; 1–5)2.49 (0.06)2.69 (0.05)2.57 (0.05)2.61 (0.08)2.350.071
 F→WItime (3; 1–5)1.72 (0.05)2.07 (0.05)1.82 (0.05)1.64 (0.08)11.84<0.001
 W→FIstrain (3; 1–5)2.37 (0.06)2.45 (0.05)2.42 (0.05)2.26 (0.09)1.310.271
 F→WIstrain (3; 1–5)1.64 (0.05)1.73 (0.04)1.66 (0.04)1.55 (0.07)1.950.120
 W→FIbehaviour (3; 1–5)2.32 (0.06)2.51 (0.06)2.52 (0.05)2.43 (0.09)2.460.061
 F→WIbehaviour (3; 1–5)2.37 (0.06)2.57 (0.06)2.58 (0.06)2.48 (0.09)2.480.059
  • * On these scales, a higher score is unfavourable.

  • On these scales, a higher score is favourable.