Table 4

Associations with escalation in pharmacological pain treatment for the Continuation group of chronic analgesic treatment

ExposureAdjusted OR95% CI
LowerUpper
Analgesics*
 Level 116.0015.2016.85
 Level 27.877.598.16
 Level 33.143.003.28
 Level 41.551.501.61
 Level 5Reference
Gender
 Female0.960.940.98
 MaleReference
Age (years)
 15–250.910.850.97
 26–400.980.951.01
 41–650.990.971.01
 66–85Reference
Urbanisation
 11.181.141.23
 21.141.101.17
 31.081.041.12
 41.051.011.09
 5Reference
Deprived neighbourhood
 Yes1.041.011.08
 NoReference
SNRI1.191.021.40
SSRI1.031.0041.07
TCA1.191.061.32
Other antidepressants1.081.031.14
Antipsychotics
 Total1.241.081.43
 1st generation1.010.881.15
 2nd generation0.800.700.91
Mood stabilisers0.970.851.10
Sedatives1.311.291.34
Migraine0.950.910.99
Cardiovascular drugs1.121.101.14
Other somatic drug classes1.121.101.14
  • * Escalation = change to a higher level of analgesic potency, level 5= highest level.

  • 1= highest level of urbanisation, 5= rural environment.

  • TCA total (fully saturated model: OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.32; backward elimination model: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.36).

  • TCA, tricyclic antidepressants; SNRI, selective noradrenaline–serotonin reuptake inhibitors; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.