Table 3

Associations with escalation in pharmacological pain treatment for the Starter group of chronic analgesic treatment

ExposureAdjusted OR95% CI
LowerUpper
Analgesics*
 Level 158.2353.6063.27
 Level 217.9216.7519.16
 Level 34.664.235.14
 Level 41.361.271.45
 Level 5Reference
Gender
 Female0.970.950.99
 MaleReference0.000.00
Age (years)
 15–250.730.690.77
 26–400.810.780.84
 41–650.870.850.90
 66–85Reference
Urbanisation
 11.241.181.30
 21.161.111.22
 31.111.061.17
 41.071.021.13
 5Reference
Deprived neighbourhood
 Yes1.071.021.11
 NoReference
SNRI
 Before start of analgesics1.050.961.14
 Same start date1.280.971.69
 After analgesics started1.261.091.45
 NoneReference
SSRI
 Before start of analgesics0.970.921.02
 Same start date0.970.831.15
 After analgesics started1.070.971.18
 NoneReference
TCA
 Before start of analgesics1.231.151.32
 Same start date1.321.121.54
 After analgesics started2.192.032.36
 NoneReference
Other antidepressants
 Before start of analgesics1.030.931.15
 Same start date0.930.711.21
 After analgesics started1.221.061.42
 NoneReference
Antipsychotics
 Before start of analgesics0.920.851.01
 Same start date0.690.580.83
 After analgesics started2.422.182.67
 NoneReference
Mood stabilisers
 Before start of analgesics1.401.101.79
 Same start date0.910.431.89
 After analgesics started0.710.391.31
 NoneReference
Sedatives
 Before start of analgesics1.241.201.28
 Same start date1.251.181.33
 After analgesics started1.821.741.89
 NoneReference
Cardiovascular drugs
 Before start of analgesics1.161.131.19
 Same start date0.860.790.95
 After analgesics started1.351.261.45
 NoneReference
Other somatic drugs
 Before start of analgesics1.251.221.29
 Same start date1.111.071.15
 After analgesics started1.191.151.23
 NoneReference
Migraine medication
 Before start of analgesics0.830.770.89
 Same start date0.950.781.17
 After analgesics started0.910.811.02
 NoneReference
  • * Escalation = change to a higher level of analgesic potency, level 5= highest level.

  • 1= highest level of urbanisation, 5= rural environment.

  • Starting date of medication (before, at the same day or after start of analgesics).

  • TCA, tricyclic antidepressants; SNRI, selective noradrenaline–serotonin reuptake inhibitors; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.