Table 1

Physical appearance and self-reported information of young men from the general population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark

Investigation period
1996–2010, total (N=4867)1996–2000 (N=1339)2001–2005 (N=2254)2006–2010 (N=1274)Difference between the three groups, p Value
Mean (SD)Median (5–95)Mean (SD)Median (5–95)Mean (SD)Median (5–95)Mean (SD)Median (5–95)
Physical appearance
 Age (years)*19.4 (1.2)19.0 (18.4–21.7)19.6 (1.4)19.0 (18.5–22.4)19.3 (1.1)18.9 (18.4–21.3)19.4 (1.2)19.0 (18.4–21.8)<0.0005¶¶
 Height (m)1.81 (0.06)1.81 (1.71–1.92)1.81 (0.07)1.81 (1.71–1.92)1.81 (0.07)1.81 (1.70–1.91)1.82 (0.06)1.82 (1.71–1.93)<0.0005¶¶
 Weight (kg)75.1 (11.5)73.5 (59.4–96.4)75.2 (11.7)73.6 (59.0–97.5)74.9 (11.5)73.3 (59.2–97.0)75.5 (11.2)74.1 (60.1–96.0)0.15¶¶
 BMI (kg/m2)22.9 (3.1)22.4 (18.7–28.8)22.9 (3.2)22.4 (18.8–28.9)22.9 (3.2)22.4 (18.7–29.0)22.8 (3.1)22.4 (18.7–25.6)0.8¶¶
 Testis size (ml)20 (5)20 (13–28)20 (5)20 (12–28)20 (5)20 (13–28)22 (5)23 (14–29)<0.0005¶¶
 Testis size (ml), US15 (4)14 (9–22)15 (5)15 (9–24)14 (4)14 (9–22)14 (4)14 (9–21)<0.0005¶¶
Lifestyle
 Cigarettes daily, all men4.1 (6.7)0.0 (0.0–20.0)5.0 (7.4)0.0 (0.0–20.0)3.9 (6.5)0.0 (0.0–20.0)3.7 (6.2)0.0 (0.0–18.0)0.004¶¶
 Cigarettes daily, smokers only9.9 (7.1)10.0 (1.0–20.0)11.7 (7.1)10.0 (1.0–20.0)9.9 (6.9)10.0 (1.0–20.0)8.1 (6.9)7.0 (0.1–20.0)<0.0005¶¶
 Alcohol consumption (units)14 (14)11 (0–40)13 (13)11 (0–38)14 (14)11 (0–37)15 (16)12 (0–42)0.1¶¶
 Ejaculation abstinence (hours)81 (117)63 (37–155)86 (95)63 (35–168)81 (137)62 (38–135)77 (96)63 (37–134)0.1¶¶
%%%%
Taken medication§12.514.69.715.1<0.0005¶¶
Smoker41.742.539.145.40.001¶¶
Previous smoker3.12.02.35.8<0.0005¶¶
Never-smoker55.255.658.648.7<0.0005¶¶
Mother smoked in pregnancy38.036.238.329.1<0.0005¶¶
Been diagnosed as having
 Varicocele0.60.50.70.40.4***
 Epididymitis0.30.30.50.20.3***
 Sexual transmitted disease4.32.24.66.2<0.0005***
 Cystitis2.41.42.43.60.002***
 Diabetes0.020.00.040.00.6***
 Thyroid disease0.040.00.050.080.001***
Been treated for
 Varicocele0.40.00.70.40.004***
 Testicular torsion0.81.00.60.90.4***
 Testicular cancer0.020.00.00.10.2***
 Cryptorchidism**6.13.98.05.0<0.0005***
 Hypospadias0.10.00.00.30.004***
 Phimosis3.95.42.74.6<0.0005***
 Inguinal hernia3.43.84.80.5<0.0005***
Has
 Had cryptorchidism††8.34.411.26.9<0.0005***
 Experienced fertility problems‡‡0.61.70.20.2<0.0005***
 Caused a pregnancy§§6.47.45.66.80.08***
Subgroup80.684.677.881.2<0.0005***
  • * Calculated as difference between day of attendance in study and self-reported day of birth.

  • Mean of left and right testes size assessed by palpation. Information of testis size was missing for 3, 9 and 3 men from the 1st, 2nd and 3rd investigation period, respectively.

  • Sum of intake of beer, wine and strong alcohol recent week prior to participation in study.

  • § Taken any medication recent 3 months prior to participation in study.

  • Chlamydia or gonorrhoea.

  • ** Hormonal, surgical or combination.

  • †† Not born with both testicles in scrotum (irrespective of spontaneous descend, treatment or still cryptorchid).

  • ‡‡ Ever had regular intercourse without use of contraception for at least 1 year, without partner became pregnant.

  • §§ Ever caused a pregnancy.

  • ¶¶ Kruskal–Wallis test.

  • *** χ2 test.

  • Subgroup: Men without adverse conditions ‘Been diagnosed as having…’, ‘Been treated for…’ or ‘Has…’. Those that have caused a pregnancy are also included, irrespective of any adverse condition previously. See text for further explanation.

  • p Value: For comparison of results between the three study periods.