Table 3

Analysis of variance results for effect of condition (comparison vs control) on hand grip strength and persistence (95% CI)

Comparison groupControl groupSignificance
Mean (SE)Mean (SE)dfFPη2
Grip strength (kg)
 Basic model (no covariates)6.9 (1.38)11.02 (1.36)1,534.510.0380.078
 Strength adjusting for self-reported arthritis6.85 (1.32)11.07 (1.3)1,525.210.0270.091
 Strength adjusting for age and gender norms, education level, residence and arthritis6.86 (1.46)11.07 (1.31)1,484.730.0350.090
Grip persistence (s)
 Basic model (no covariates)8.36 (1.46)12.57 (1.43)1,534.230.0450.074
 Persistence adjusting for self-reported arthritis8.32 (1.44)12.61 (1.41)1,524.520.0380.038
 Persistence adjusting for age and gender norms, education level, residence and arthritis8.33 (1.46)12.61 (1.44)1,484.640.0360.09
  • There is a significant effect of self-reported arthritis on grip strength (F=6.08, df =1,52, P=0.017, η2=0.105) but not for persistence (F=2.52, df=1,52, P=0.12, η2=0.046).

  • η2, effect size estimate; df, degrees of freedom.