Table 1

Frequency distribution and bivariate analysis of the association between intrinsic and extrinsic factors and the occurrence of nosocomial diarrhoea (ND) in infants paediatric wards at IMIP, from 1 April to 31 October 2009

VariablesAll infantsPatients with NDPatients without NDOR (95% CI)*p Value
N=378n=33n=345
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Intrinsic factors
 Pacifier user in the hospital194 (51.3)16 (48.5)178 (51.6)0.88 (0.43 to 1.80)0.72
 Bottle feeding281 (74.3)21 (64.0)260 (75.4)0.57 (0.27 to 1.21)0.15
 Finger sucking habit36 (9.5)3 (9.0)33 (9.6)0.95 (0.27 to 1.32)0.94
 Rotavirus vaccination173 (45.8)16 (48.5)157 (45.5)0.87 (0.43 to 1.80)0.73
 Age ≤6 months234 (62.0)21 (64.0)213 (61.7)1.09 (0.52 to 2.29)0.82
 Sex, male223 (59.0)21 (64.0)202 (58.5)1.25 (0.59 to 2.62)0.56
 Low weight at birth61 (16.1)5 (15.1)56 (16.2)0.92 (0.34 to 2.48)0.87
 Prematurity67 (17.7)6 (18.2)61 (17.7)1.03 (0.41 to 2.610.94
 Breast feeding208 (55.0)12 (36.4)196 (56.8)0.43 (0.20 to 0.90)0.03
 Nutritional status, weight/age z-score ≤−256 (14.8)6 (18.2)50 (14.5)1.3 (0.50 to 3.34)0.59
Extrinsic factors
 Use of devices or medication
  Central venous catheter31 (8.2)6 (18.2)25 (7.2)2.96 (1.06 to 8.23)0.04
  Peripheral venous catheter281 (74.3)25 (75.8)256 (74.2)1.08 (0.47 to 2.49)0.85
  Gastric tube86 (22.7)12 (36.4)74 (21.4)2.1 (0.986 to 4.53)0.06
  Oxygen therapy by nasal catheter48 (12.7)6 (18.2)42 (12.2)1.59 (0.62 to 4.13)0.34
  Antibiotic264 (69.8)25 (75.8)239 (69.3)1.38 (0.60 to 3.16)0.44
  Corticoids113 (29.9)11 (33.3)102 (29.7)1.19 (0.55 to 2.54)0.66
  Gastric acid H2 blockers54 (14.2)6 (18.2)48 (14.0)1.36 (0.53 to 3.52)0.52
  Prolonged fasting73 (19.3)6 (18.2)67 (19.4)0.91 (0.36 to 2.30)0.84
Median (IQR)Median (IQR)Median (IQR)
 LOS, patient-days266 (4–10)6 (4–10)6 (4–9)1.00 (0.97 to 1.04)0.83
 Device utilisation, patient-days of use
  Central venous catheter177 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)1.09 (0.97 to 1.23)0.14
  Peripheral venous catheter856 (0–3)2 (1–3)2 (0–3)0.98 (0.84 to 1.13)0.76
  Gastric tube465 (0–0)0 (0–2)0 (0–0)1.10 (0.98 to 1.22)0.09
  Oxygen therapy by nasal catheter125 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)1.32 (1.04 to 1.68)0.02
  Antibiotic1449 (0–6)7 (1–11)2 (0–6)1.49 (1.28 to 1.74)0.00
  Corticoids408 (0–1)0 (0–1)0 (0–1)1.04 (0.92 to 1.18)0.50
  Gastric acid H2 blockers344 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)1.03 (0.93 to 1.13)0.61
  Prolonged fasting145 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0.95 (0.71 to 1.28)0.75
  • * OR adjusted for LOS to until first-onset episode of diarrhoea, discharge or death. p values of less than 0.2 are shown in bold numbers.

  • Patient-days until first-onset episode of ND, discharge or death.

  • IMIP, Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira; LOS, length of stay.