Table 5

GLMM of factors associated with being a perpetrator of forced sex, among male and female youth aged 11–16 years

Variables in final GLMM modelsAdjusted OR (95% CI)
Males (n=22 098)Females (n=26 292)
Experienced forced or coerced sex4.37 (3.96 to 4.82)5.34 (4.66 to 6.13)
Insufficient food in the last week in household1.30 (1.16 to 1.45)
Attending a school where there was a higher proportion of students who said they had suffered sexual violence1.51 (1.28 to 1.78)
Attending a school where a lower proportion of students knew about child rights1.29 (1.16 to 1.43)1.35 (1.16 to 1.57)
Attending a school where a higher proportion of students said they had perpetrated forced sex2.23 (2.01 to 2.49)2.13 (1.81 to 2.51)
Attending a school where a higher proportion of students drank alcohol1.25 (1.13 to 1.38)1.17 (1.01 to 1.36)
Living in a community that is not accessible by tar road1.33 (1.20 to 1.48)1.51 (1.30 to 1.75)
Living in a community where a higher proportion of adults said it is acceptable for an older man to have sex with a teenager1.17 (1.01 to 1.35)
Living in a community where a higher proportion of adults reported intimate partner violence in the last year1.23 (1.07 to 1.42)
  • Country was treated as a random effect in the models.

  • GLMM, generalised linear mixed model.