Table 3

Risk factors for lifetime experience of sexual violence in school-going male and female youth aged 11–16 years in 2007

CharacteristicsCategoriesLifetime experience of sexual violence*
MaleFemale
ProportionsOR (95% CI)ProportionsOR (95% CI)
Individual and household variables
 Age group11–13 years1137/65911.13 (1.03 to 1.23)1114/90761.71 (1.52 to 1.92)
14–16 years2943/15 0223318/16 764
 Area of residenceUrban1685/10 0071.10 (0.98 to 1.25)1840/12 2371.09 (0.96 to 1.25)
Rural2395/11 6062592/13 603
 Crowding in the house1–3 per room2710/14 8400.96 (0.89 to 1.04)3055/17 8140.94 (0.86 to 1.02)
4–10 per room1154/57671206/7006
 Enough food in the house in the last weekYes3199/17 6211.33 (1.20 to 1.46)3409/21 0411.51 (1.35 to 1.69)
No824/3724952/4457
Community-level variables
 Access by good tar roadYes1319/74050.93 (0.80 to 1.09)1496/91901.03 (0.88 to 1.20)
No2260/11 1902309/12 673
 Active government HIV prevention programmeYes2390/13 1241.01 (0.86 to 1.17)2524/15 3611.01 (0.85 to 1.19)
No1185/55511196/6538
 Proportion of adults saying that “women sometimes deserve to be beaten”Below average1979/10 3660.94 (0.83 to 1.07)2139/12 4420.91 (0.80 to 1.04)
Above average1884/10 1042028/12 142
 Proportion of adults saying it is “okay for an older man to have sex with teenagers”Below average2582/13 5170.98 (1.86 to 1.12)2865/16 4620.91 (0.80 to 1.03)
Above average1281/69531302/8122
 Proportion of adults saying “men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts”Below average2213/11 8791.06 (0.94 to 1.20)2515/14 5350.98 (0.85 to 1.13)
Above average1650/85911652/10 049
 Proportion of adults reporting intimate partner violence in last yearBelow average1654/86190.94 (0.83 to 1.07)1785/10 4351.01 (0.88 to 1.15)
Above average2209/11 8512385/14 149
School-level variables
 Proportion of students reporting experience of sexual violenceBelow average1540/10 9091.94 (1.73 to 2.17)1819/13 5611.84 (1.61 to 2.11)
Above average2540/10 7042613/12 279
 Proportion of students knowing of three child rightsAbove average1678/95881.11 (0.98 to 1.25)2095/12 2630.99 (0.87 to 1.13)
Below average2402/12 0252337/13 577
 Proportion of students agreeing that boys and girls are equalAbove average1851/10 4911.13 (1.00 to 1.27)2255/13 3421.01 (0.90 to 1.14)
Below average2229/11 1222177/12 498
 Proportion of students reporting perpetration of sexual violenceBelow average1939/12 2931.60 (1.42 to 1.81)2298/15 3201.48 (1.29 to 1.70)
Above average2141/93202134/10 520
 Proportion of students reporting drinking alcoholBelow average2182/12 7001.34 (1.19 to 1.52)2370/14 8311.31 (1.15 to 1.49)
Above average1898/89132062/11 009
  • Values in bold indicate associations significant at the 5% level.

  • * Defined as those who responded positively to the question: “Has anyone ever forced or persuaded you to have sex when you did not want to?”

  • OR and 95% CI from bivariate analysis of group with characteristic compared with counterfactual group (eg, age 14–16 years compared with age 11–13 years), stratified by country and adjusted for clustering.