Table 4

Mental symptoms and experiences during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull

Likelihood of PTSD (n=138)General health (n=151)Depression§ (n=132)Anxiety§ (n=130)Stress§ (n=133)
Exposure at residence (‘From your residence, did you experience any of the following?’)
 Was awakened by noise (n=157)
  Yes5/66 (8%)38/75 (51%)*3/63 (5%)6/64 (9%)3/63 (5%)
  No5/63 (8%)16/66 (24%)5/61 (8%)4/58 (7%)5/60 (8%)
 Felt earthquakes (n=155)
  Yes5/42 (12%)27/51 (53%)2/39 (5%)*3/38 (8%)2/39 (5%)*
  No4/85 (5%)27/89 (30%)5/84 (6%)7/83 (8%)5/84 (6%)
Traumatic experiences (‘Did you during the eruption…’)
 Think your life was in danger (n=144)
  Yes1/6 (17%)*2/4 (50%)1/5 (20%)*0/5 (0%)1/4 (25%)
  No8/126 (6%)42/123 (34%)8/123 (7%)11/120 (9%)7/123 (6%)
 Think that someone else's life was in danger (n=139)
  Yes4/19 (21%)*9/16 (56%)3/18 (17%)3/17 (29%)3/17 (18%)*
  No5/108 (5%)33/107 (31%)5/105 (5%)6/103 (6%)4/105 (4%)
 Feel helpless (n=143)
  Yes9/30 (30%)*20/27 (74%)*8/30 (27%)*8/29 (28%)*7/28 (25%)*
  No0/101 (0%)24/100 (24%)1/98 (1%)3/96 (3%)1/99 (1%)
 Feel afraid (n=142)
  Yes4/17 (24%)*10/17 (59%)*5/18 (28%)*4/16 (25%)*3/17 (18%)
  No5/113 (4%)34/108 (31%)4/108 (4%)6/107 (6%)5/108 (5%)
  • In all fractions the nominator refers to those who scored above the cut-off for the various scales.

  • * Significant difference in exposure rates between cases and non-cases (p<0.05 in a χ2 test).

  • Derived from the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptom Scale–Self Report (PSS-SR).

  • Derived from the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12).

  • § Derived from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS).