Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients on the day of ARDS onset

CharacteristicTotal (n=85)60 daysOutcomesp Value
Survivors (n=54)Non-survivors (n=31)
Age (years)*75±1075±1176±100.60
Sex (male/female)51/3430/2421/100.38
Cigarette smoking3317160.11
Presence of emphysema3218140.39
Liver cirrhosis (%)6 (7.1)4 (7.4)2 (6.5)>0.99
Direct/indirect injury59/2638/1621/100.81
Causes of lung injury
 Pneumonia (%)32 (37.6)2012>0.99
 Sepsis (%)24 (28.2)13110.38
 Pulmonary (%)11 (12.9)560.20
 Extrapulmonary (%)13 (15.2)85>0.99
 Aspiration (%)22 (25.9)1660.44
 Others (%)7 (8.2)52>0.99
Lung injury score*3.2±0.53.3±0.53.3±0.50.88
APACHE II score21.0±4.721.0±4.622.0±4.90.76
SOFA score7.0±2.87.0±2.86.0±2.90.15
McCabe score (1/2/3)78/5/249/4/129/1/1>0.99
DIC score* 2.4±1.72.4±1.72.5±1.60.68
White blood cell count (per mm3)10 600±678810 600±617810 600±78390.63
C reactive protein (mg/dl)15.4±10.315.4±9.616.1±11.50.69
Albumin (g/dl)3.0±0.53.1±0.52.8±0.50.11
Lactate dehydrogenase (IU/l)308±185301±147339±2350.29
Platelet count (per mm3)20.1±10.720.7±11.018.9±10.30.94
Days of CT scanning from ARDS onset (day)1.0±0.01.0±0.01.0±0.0>0.99
HRCT score207±53196±54233±460.001
Initial steroid therapy
 High dose14770.36
 Low dose7147240.36
Ventilatory variables
 Tidal volume, ml/kg predicted body weight8.0±0.88.0±0.78.0±0.90.54
 Plateau pressure, cmH2O21.5±4.221.0±3.823.0±4.70.34
 Initial PEEP, cmH2O8.0±3.48.0±2.58.0±4.30.18
  • Data are expressed as median ± SD.

  • * Data are mean ± SD. The p values refer to comparisons between survivors and non-survivors.

  • Score ≥4 defined as disseminated intravascular coagulation from scoring system for The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine.

  • APACHE II, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; DIC, disseminated intravascular coagulation; HRCT, high-resolution CT; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment.