Table 1

Frequencies of abnormalities on neurological testing, PTSD and MOCA scores for combat veterans with combat mTBI, combat veterans who did not have LOC and veterans who sustained mTBI in a civilian setting

Patient groupDeficit on neurological examinationDeficits on neurological examination other than olfactionPTSDMOCA scores
Combat veterans with mTBI (n=126)65 (52%)29 (23%)83 (66%)25.1±0.18
Combat veterans without LOC (n=21)*0 (0%), p<0.0010 (0%), p<0.0012 (9.5%), p<0.00128.8±0.29, p<0.001
Combat veterans with definite mTBI without LOC (n=16)*0 (0%), p<0.0010 (0%), p<0.0011 (6.25%), p<0.00128.9±0.32, p<0.001
Veterans with civilian mTBI (n=21)2 (9.5%), p<0.0011 (4.8%), p<0.0011 (4.8%), p<0.00128.4±0.23, p<0.001
  • Probabilities are for comparisons to combat veterans who sustained mTBI with LOC in combat.

  • * Sixteen had definite mTBI without LOC and five had probable mTBI without LOC.

  • LOC, loss of consciousness; MOCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; mTBI, mild traumatic brain injury; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.