Table 1

Characteristics of study participants

Non-usersAny hypnotic usersZolpidemTemazepam
N23 67410 53143382076
% Female*62.763.964.860.0
Age (years, mean±SD)*53.6 ±16.654.0±16.954.0±17.153.7±17.2
Years of observation (mean±SD)2.50±1.432.49±1.392.34±1.332.51±1.37
Comorbidity classes (mean ±SD)***1.06±1.271.53±1.551.49±1.541.53±1.52
Died during observation (% deceased)***295 (1.2)638 (6.1)265 (6.1)143 (6.9)
BMI (%)***
Marital status (%)***
Ethnicity (%)***
 Asian, Black, Hispanics5.
 Native or other0.
Smoking status (%)***
 Yes, now21.023.522.524.5
Alcohol use (%)***
  • Non-users: controls with no record of hypnotic prescription. Any hypnotic users: receiving any hypnotic prescription during the period of observation. Zolpidem: users receiving prescriptions for zolpidem only. Temazepam: users receiving prescriptions for temazepam only. Years of observation: the period of observation for users and non-users in years. Comorbidity classes: the number of disease classes diagnosed both before and during the period of observation (see supplemental files for definitions of comorbidity classes). BMI (%): the percentage of the total group within the BMI range defined (kg/m2). Ethnicity (%): the percentage in each self-reported ethnicity (Asians, Blacks and Hispanics were combined because of small numbers). Alcohol use (%): a simple yes/no self-report. See supplemental table 3 for data concerning the less commonly prescribed hypnotics. * indicates p<0.05 and *** indicates p<0.001, contrasting non-users versus all hypnotic users.

  • BMI, body mass index.