Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the trial groups (mean ± SD or frequency and %, difference between the groups and 95% CI)

InterventionControlDifference (95% CI)p ValueMissing
N3727
Age of the mother at delivery29.6±3.628.4±4.01.26 (−0.69 to 3.20)0.195*1, 0
Prepregnancy weight (kg)61.8±11.160.1±8.11.64 (−3.19 to 6.47)0.519*1, 0
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)22.4±3.721.8±2.40.68 (−0.85 to 2.21)0.402*1, 0
Range (kg)18.1–35.417.3–27.9
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)0.593
 <2530 (83.3%)25 (92.6%)−9.3% (−24.9% to 6.4%)1, 0
 25–29.94 (11.1%)2 (7.4%)3.7% (−10.5% to 18.0%)
 30+2 (5.6%)5.6% (−1.9% to 13.0%)
Gestational weight gain (kg)15.8±5.516.0±5.0−0.19 (−2.86 to 2.48)0.888*1, 0
Weight gain recommendations during pregnancy0.965
 Lower9 (25.0%)6 (22.2%)2.8% (−18.3% to 23.9%)1, 0
 At the range of the recommendations10 (27.8%)8 (29.6%)−1.9% (−24.5% to 20.7%)
 Higher17 (47.2%)13 (48.1%)−0.9% (−25.8% to 24.0%)
Education0.603
 Low8 (22.2%)8 (29.6%)−7.4% (−29.3% to 14.5%)1, 0
 Medium7 (19.4%)3 (11.1%)8.3% (−9.2% to 25.9%)
 High21 (58.3%)16 (59.3%)−0.9% (−25.5% to 23.6%)
Employed32 (88.9%)24 (88.9%)0.0% (−15.7% to 15.7%)1.0001, 0
Ever-smokers18 (50.0%)17 (63.0%)−13.0% (−37.4% to 11.5%)0.3061, 0
Smoking during pregnancy4 (11.1%)6 (22.2%)−11.1% (−29.9% to 7.6%)0.2323, 1
Sex of the child—boy21 (56.8%)16 (59.3%)−2.5% (−27.0% to 22.0%)0.841
Proportion of children with SGA7 (19.4%)4 (15.4%)4.1% (−14.9% to 23.0%)0.6801, 1
Proportion of children with LGA1 (2.8%)1 (3.8%)−1.1% (−10.2% to 8.1%)1.0001, 1
Macrosomia, birth weight >4000 g5 (13.5%)3 (11.5%)2.0% (−14.5% to 18.5%)0.8170, 1
Breast feeding (no other nutrition) (months)4.0±1.83.5±2.40.45 (−0.64 to 1.54)0.391*
Partial breast feeding (months)6.0±4.35.9±5.80.12 (−2.52 to 2.76)0.657§
Age of the child receiving solid foods (months)4.8±1.04.8±1.3−0.03 (−0.64 to 0.58)0.870§1, 0
  • * Independent samples t test.

  • Fisher's exact test.

  • χ2 Test.

  • § Mann–Whitney U test.

  • LGA, large for gestational age; SGA, small for gestational age.