Table 1

Outcomes on weaning style and infant feeding, socioeconomic status scores, picky eating and BMI*

CharacteristicBaby-led (n=92)Spoon-fed (n=63)p Value
Child age at testing (months)32.12 (10.30)41.62 (13.58)<0.0001
Female57.6% (53/92)39.7% (25/63)0.03
Handled food from introduction of solids96.7% (89/92)15.87% (10/63)<0.0001
Exposed to pureed food32.6% (30/92)100% (63/63)0.0001
First exposed to finger food (age in months)6.49 (1.41)7.10 (1.63)0.001
Child was breastfed98.9% (91/92)88.9% (56/63)0.008
Duration (months) of breastfeeding23.70 (11.27)9.50 (9.30)<0.0001
Socioeconomic status: IDACI score0.11 (0.08)0.14 (0.11)0.17
Socioeconomic status: IDACI rank19566.81 (8304.26)21679.33 (7218.74)0.16
Birth weight (lbs/oz)7.64 (2.70)7.09 (1.31)0.09
Child BMI: NHS UK percentile rank54.38 (28.91)§64.79 (26.20)0.05
Child BMI: CDC US percentile rank48.46 (29.71)§61.44 (26.98)0.009
Parent BMI24.08 (5.46)24.91 (1.31)0.91
Child is picky eater18.5% (17/92)23.8% (15/63)0.43
  • * Means and SDs are shown in parentheses for continuous variables. Analyses were conducted on the whole sample.

  • In the matched sample (used to analyse weaning style preference data), there was no gender difference (table 2).

  • There was no difference in breastfeeding between the groups in the matched sample (92% were breastfed in the spoon-fed group compared to 97% in the baby-led group) (χ2=0.30, p=0.62).

  • § BMI data were missing from 29/92 (32%) because parents had not weighed or measured their child recently. Within the baby-led group, there was no difference in preference ratings between those children with BMI scores and those without (max U=151.5, p=0.88, for protein).

  • BMI, body mass index; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; NHS, National Health Service; IDACI, Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index.