Table 2

Characteristics of labour and delivery: distribution in cases and controls and bivariate analysis

Women with severe PPH (N=1483), n (%)*Controls (N =1758), n (%)*p Value
Post-term delivery292 (20)230 (13)10−3
Induction of labour356 (24)316 (18)10−3
Epidural analgesia1146 (77)1282 (73)0.05
Temperature >38°C during labour42 (3)19 (1)10−3
Duration of the active phase of the first stage of labour (min)
 Mean (SD)333 (187)263 (159)10−3
 Median (25th, 75th pc)310 (195, 445)240 (143, 357)
 <240474 (33)843 (50)
 240–<357353 (25)434 (25)
 357–480308 (22)255 (15)
 ≥480285 (20)171 (10)
 MD63 (4)§55 (3)§
Duration of expulsive efforts (min)
 Mean (SD)21 (14)15 (11)10−3
 Median (25th, 75th pc)20 (10, 30)11 (6, 20)
 <11365 (28)695 (50)
 11–<20265 (21)310 (22)
 20–<30300 (23)234 (17)
 ≥30351 (27)159 (11)
 MD202 (14)§360 (20)§
Operative delivery490 (33)220 (13)10−3
Episiotomy913 (62)591 (34)10−3
Perineal tear399 (27)542 (31)0.01
Birth weight (g)
 Mean (SD)3469 (446)3337 (427)10−3
 Median (25th, 75th pc)3455 (3180, 3750)3325 (3050, 3620)
 >4000166 (11)105 (6)
Prophylactic oxytocin administration after delivery890 (60)1240 (71)10−3
  • MD, missing data; pc, percentile; PPH, postpartum haemorrhage.

  • * Percentage of the total non-missing values.

  • χ2 test.

  • The thresholds correspond to the 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the distribution in the control group.

  • § Percentage of the total of cases and controls.