Table 3

The effect on mortality of receiving VAS in a campaign, overall and by sex and vaccine status prior to the campaign*

CrudeAdjusted
Campaign informationRate/1000 PYRS (deaths/PYRS)MRR (95% CI)p For interaction VAS and vaccineBoys: MRR (95% CI)Girls: MRR (95% CI)MRR (95% CI)p For interaction VAS and vaccineBoys: MRR (95% CI)Girls: MRR (95% CI)
Last received vaccine before the campaign§
OPVVAS14.1 (8/569)p=0.090.16p=0.05p=0.19NANANANA
No VAS0 (0/203)
MVVAS11.3 (10/882)0.41 (0.17 to 1.01)0.060.38 (0.12 to 1.19)0.47 (0.11 to 2.11)0.34 (0.14 to 0.85)0.040.31 (0.10 to 0.96)0.41 (0.09 to 1.85)
No VAS26.9 (9/335)
DTPVAS20.1 (21/1041)1.41 (0.57 to 3.51)Reference1.48 (0.41 to 5.32)1.34 (0.37 to 4.87)1.29 (0.52 to 3.22)Reference1.37 (0.39 to 4.93)1.21 (0.33 to 4.43)
No VAS14.5 (6/414)
DTP+MVVAS16.5 (1/61)0.24 (0.02 to 2.62)0.170NA0.21 (0.02 to 2.30)0.160NA
No VAS63.3 (2/32)
  • * Assessed among children with a seen vaccination card, thus excluding six deaths among children with no seen card (three VAS and three no VAS).

  • Adjusted for sex, campaign, ethnicity and maternal education.

  • Test for different mortality rate in supplemented and non-supplemented children.

  • § Fifty-seven children with BCG or no vaccination excluded due to small numbers (one death: VAS).DTP, diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine; MV, measles vaccine; MRR, mortality rate ratio; OPV, oral polio vaccine; PYRS, person-years; VAS, vitamin A supplementation.