Table 1

Multivariable linear regression of the association of mode of contraception and GDP (a measure of country's wealth) with prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and PCa mortality

Estimate95% CIp Value
PCa incidence
 Oral contraceptive use1.060.58 to 1.6<0.001
 Intrauterine device0.01−0.4 to 0.40.9
 Condom use0.9−0.1 to 1.90.3
 Vaginal barrier0.07−4 to 100.5
 GDP0.60.1 to 1.10.055
PCa mortality
 Oral contraceptive use0.750.31 to 1.10.06
 Intrauterine device−0.02−0.4 to 30.2
 Condom use0.2−0.1 to 0.3290.3
 Vaginal barrier0.01−2.1 to 20.9
 GDP0.160.04 to 0.90.09
  • GDP, gross domestic product per capita. GDP refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living.