Table 4

Adjusted RR (95% CI) of infant mortality and child health outcome by age of the mother at first birth

Infant mortalityStuntingUnderweightWastingDiarrhoeaModerate anaemia
Age band in years of the mother at first birth
 27–29 (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 12–141.703 (1.478 to 1.962)1.507 (1.416 to 1.603)1.351 (1.236 to 1.477)1.027 (0.870 to 1.211)1.365 (1.216 to 1.533)1.315 (1.131 to 1.528)
 15–171.307 (1.160 to 1.474)1.341 (1.274 to 1.412)1.218 (1.131 to 1.313)1.040 (0.923 to 1.170)1.326 (1.224 to 1.436)1.357 (1.222 to 1.507)
 18–201.083 (0.963 to 1.219)1.272 (1.210 to 1.338)1.122 (1.043 to 1.207)1.007 (0.899 to 1.129)1.244 (1.151 to 1.343)1.327 (1.200 to 1.468)
 21–231.018 (0.903 to 1.148)1.191 (1.132 to 1.254)1.052 (0.976 to 1.132)1.018 (0.908 to 1.141)1.227 (1.135 to 1.326)1.349 (1.219 to 1.493)
 24–261.079 (0.948 to 1.228)1.087 (1.028 to 1.148)0.989 (0.912 to 1.071)1.004 (0.889 to 1.135)1.108 (1.019 to 1.203)1.239 (1.114 to 1.378)
 30–321.191 (0.981 to 1.445)0.925 (0.845 to 1.013)0.824 (0.717 to 0.947)0.915 (0.749 to 1.119)0.979 (0.860 to 1.115)1.117 (0.947 to 1.317)
 33–351.340 (1.041 to 1.725)1.025 (0.908 to 1.156)0.872 (0.715 to 1.062)0.976 (0.733 to 1.299)0.831 (0.687 to 1.006)1.079 (0.854 to 1.362)
Sex of child
 Male (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Female0.787 (0.759 to 0.815)0.900 (0.888 to 0.913)0.915 (0.895 to 0.935)0.854 (0.821 to 0.889)0.927 (0.903 to 0.951)0.956 (0.927 to 0.985)
Type of birth
 Singleton (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Twin4.998 (4.609 to 5.421)1.302 (1.207 to 1.404)1.627 (1.459 to 1.814)1.264 (1.018 to 1.570)0.918 (0.782 to 1.077)1.135 (0.963 to 1.337)
Age of child in months
 48–59 (reference)1.001.001.001.001.00
 36–471.146 (1.119 to 1.174)1.023 (0.986 to 1.062)0.986 (0.916 to 1.060)1.392 (1.311 to 1.477)1.219 (1.147 to 1.296)
 24–351.246 (1.217 to 1.275)1.123 (1.083 to 1.164)1.145 (1.066 to 1.229)2.446 (2.316 to 2.582)1.609 (1.513 to 1.711)
 12–231.169 (1.141 to 1.198)1.114 (1.073 to 1.156)1.572 (1.466 to 1.686)3.818 (3.625 to 4.021)2.240 (2.102 to 2.386)
Educational level of the mother at time of interview
 Secondary or higher (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Completed primary1.266 (1.160 to 1.382)1.286 (1.243 to 1.329)1.282 (1.214 to 1.354)1.022 (0.945 to 1.105)1.143 (1.092 to 1.196)1.079 (1.009 to 1.154)
 No education or incomplete primary1.626 (1.480 to 1.786)1.482 (1.429 to 1.536)1.586 (1.495 to 1.681)1.243 (1.141 to 1.355)1.192 (1.131 to 1.256)1.159 (1.075 to 1.248)
Mother has a partner
 Yes (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 No0.977 (0.881 to 1.084)1.148 (1.106 to 1.193)1.237 (1.158 to 1.322)1.232 (1.101 to 1.379)1.105 (1.043 to 1.170)1.110 (1.022 to 1.206)
Educational level of the mother's partner at the time of interview
 Higher (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Completed primary1.099 (1.027 to 1.176)1.068 (1.040 to 1.097)1.097 (1.052 to 1.144)1.037 (0.969 to 1.109)1.059 (1.015 to 1.104)1.053 (0.993 to 1.117)
 No education or incomplete primary1.232 (1.147 to 1.324)1.131 (1.099 to 1.163)1.233 (1.180 to 1.288)1.151 (1.070 to 1.238)1.068 (1.019 to 1.120)1.098 (1.029 to 1.172)
Age band in years of the mother's partner at the mother's first birth
 24–29 (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 12–171.410 (1.237 to 1.606)1.148 (1.081 to 1.219)1.125 (1.017 to 1.245)1.008 (0.801 to 1.269)1.049 (0.932 to 1.181)1.090 (0.937 to 1.269)
 18–231.077 (1.026 to 1.130)1.054 (1.035 to 1.073)1.026 (0.997 to 1.056)0.979 (0.927 to 1.034)1.032 (0.997 to 1.068)1.050 (1.010 to 1.092)
 30–350.942 (0.884 to 1.005)0.964 (0.939 to 0.990)0.953 (0.918 to 0.990)0.941 (0.882 to 1.004)0.958 (0.915 to 1.002)0.997 (0.949 to 1.046)
 36–410.996 (0.904 to 1.097)0.986 (0.945 to 1.028)0.932 (0.875 to 0.992)0.929 (0.835 to 1.034)1.032 (0.960 to 1.108)1.069 (0.994 to 1.149)
 42–591.046 (0.932 to 1.173)1.036 (0.983 to 1.093)1.030 (0.954 to 1.111)0.977 (0.855 to 1.118)1.101 (1.004 to 1.207)0.962 (0.874 to 1.060)
Wealth quintile of the child's household
 Richest (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Rich1.138 (1.063 to 1.219)1.182 (1.148 to 1.216)1.272 (1.216 to 1.331)1.110 (1.032 to 1.194)1.171 (1.117 to 1.227)1.157 (1.093 to 1.224)
 Middle1.223 (1.136 to 1.316)1.257 (1.218 to 1.297)1.416 (1.348 to 1.486)1.276 (1.176 to 1.384)1.209 (1.149 to 1.272)1.246 (1.170 to 1.326)
 Poorer1.268 (1.173 to 1.371)1.332 (1.289 to 1.376)1.524 (1.448 to 1.604)1.344 (1.233 to 1.466)1.244 (1.177 to 1.314)1.287 (1.203 to 1.378)
 Poorest1.289 (1.187 to 1.399)1.445 (1.397 to 1.496)1.671 (1.585 to 1.762)1.458 (1.331 to 1.598)1.289 (1.213 to 1.369)1.338 (1.245 to 1.438)
Residence of the child's household at the time of interview
 Urban (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Rural1.043 (0.991 to 1.099)1.082 (1.059 to 1.106)1.029 (0.996 to 1.064)0.943 (0.891 to 0.998)0.939 (0.905 to 0.974)0.981 (0.937 to 1.026)
Water piped to the child's house
 Piped to house (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Water not piped to house1.100 (1.047 to 1.156)0.956 (0.938 to 0.975)1.031 (1.000 to 1.063)1.034 (0.980 to 1.092)1.002 (0.969 to 1.037)0.988 (0.950 to 1.029)
Flush toilet at child's house
 Flush toilet at house (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 No flush toilet at house1.137 (1.062 to 1.217)1.224 (1.191 to 1.259)1.137 (1.091 to 1.184)1.045 (0.978 to 1.116)1.041 (0.997 to 1.087)1.035 (0.982 to 1.090)
Child measles vaccination
 Vaccinated (reference)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Not vaccinated1.108 (1.038 to 1.183)1.070 (1.042 to 1.100)1.164 (1.120 to 1.209)1.195 (1.113 to 1.284)1.072 (1.020 to 1.127)1.109 (1.051 to 1.170)
Observations176 583119 018122 680120 246135 12131 520