Table 2

Risk of birth defects in pregnancies exposed to GLP1-RA during the first trimester compared with the two reference groups

GLP1-RA groupReference group with diabetesOverweight/obese reference groupOR (95% CI)ORadj (95% CI)*OR (95% CI)ORadj (95% CI)*
GLP1-RA group vs reference group with diabetesGLP1-RA group vs overweight/obese reference group
Major birth defects excluding chromosomal/genetic/infection associated, n (%)3/117 (2.6)†3/128 (2.3)‡5/127 (3.9)§1.10 (0.22 to 5.54)0.98 (0.16 to 5.82)0.64 (0.15 to 2.75)0.54 (0.11 to 2.75)
Major birth defects—subgroups of anomalies
 Congenital anomalies of kidney, n1
 Urogenital anomalies, n1
 Congenital heart defects, n12
 Nervous system anomalies, n11
 Polymalformative syndrome, n11
 Limb anomalies, n1
 Gastrointestinal anomalies, n1
  • *Adjusted for maternal age (≤35 years and >35 years), number of previous pregnancies (0, 1, ≥2), use of more than one medication (yes/no).

  • †Limited to pregnancies with available data on the presence or absence of a birth defect, including 113 live births, 3 terminated pregnancies and 1 stillbirth.

  • ‡Limited to pregnancies with available data on the presence or absence of a birth defect, including 126 live births, 1 terminated pregnancy and 1 stillbirth.

  • §Limited to pregnancies with available data on the presence or absence of a birth defect, including 117 live births, 7 terminated pregnancies and 3 stillbirths.

  • GLP1-RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists.