Table 1

Maternal/pregnancy characteristics in study groups

CharacteristicsGLP1-RA group (n=168)Reference group with diabetes (n=156)Overweight/obese reference group (n=163)
Maternal age (years), n166156158
 ≤35, n (%)102 (61.5)72 (46.2)107 (67.7)
 >35, n (%)64 (38.6)84 (53.9)51 (32.3)
Tobacco use, n162147162
 Yes, n (%)21 (13.0)18 (12.2)16 (9.9)
Alcohol consumption, n162138162
 Yes, n (%)3 (1.9)2 (1.5)8 (4.9)
GA initial contact (weeks), n168156163
 Median (IQR)6 (5-9)7 (6-12)6 (5–9)
Previous pregnancies, n167152162
 0, n (%)18 (10.8)39 (25.7)52 (32.1)
 1, n (%)31 (18.6)36 (23.7)42 (25.9)
>2, n (%)118 (70.7)77 (50.7)68 (42.0)
Previous spontaneous abortions, n167151160
 0, n (%)120 (71.9)110 (72.9)121 (75.6)
 1, n (%)30 (18.0)26 (17.2)24 (15.0)
>2, n (%)17 (10.2)15 (9.9)15 (9.4)
Previous ETOP, n167151160
 0, n (%)154 (92.2)134 (88.7)145 (90.6)
>1, n (%)13 (7.8)17 (11.3)15 (9.4)
Pregestational diabetes, n168156
 n (%)46 (27.4)156 (100.0)*–†
Overweight/obesity, n164154161
 BMI 25–30 kg/m2, n (%)45 (27.4)37 (24.0)56 (34.8)
 BMI >30 kg/m2, n (%)97 (59.2)88 (57.1)103 (64.0)
Other medical conditions, n80147141
 Hypertension n (%)13 (16.3)31 (21.1)7 (5.0)
 Dyslipidaemia n (%)7 (8.8)14 (9.5)0 (0)
 Hypothyroidism n (%)8 (10.0)14 (9.5)16 (11.3)
 Psychiatric condition n (%)9 (11.3)20 (13.6)52 (36.9)
 Epilepsy n (%)1 (1.3)1 (0.7)0 (0)
 Autoimmune disease n (%)5 (6.3)7 (4.8)14 (9.9)
 Other n (%)24 (30.0)36 (24.5)54 (38.3)
Any medication in pregnancy, n168156163
 n (%)102 (60.7)139 (89.1)121 (74.2)
  • *Inclusion criterion.

  • †Exclusion criterion.

  • BMI, body mass index; ETOP, elective termination of pregnancy; GA, gestational age; GLP1-RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists; IQR, Interquartile range; n, number of patients.