Table 3

Associations between demographic and healthcare factors and the odds of a community antibiotic prescription for COVID-19 episodes, from binary logistic regression

VariableCategoryFrequencyUnivariate OR (95% CI)P valueMultivariate OR (95% CI)P value
Age group<252652Reference
25–4439581.53 (1.28 to 1.84)<0.0011.35 (1.11 to 1.64)0.003
45–6443941.88 (1.58 to 2.24)<0.0011.51 (1.25 to 1.84)<0.001
65–7414312.83 (2.32 to 3.48)<0.0011.91 (1.52 to 2.39)<0.001
75+38054.89 (4.15 to 5.78)<0.0013.02 (2.50 to 3.68)<0.001
SexMale6599Reference
Female96411.25 (1.15 to 1.37)<0.0011.31 (1.19 to 1.45)<0.001
Any high-risk comorbidityNo10 108Reference
Yes61322.34 (2.05 to 2.44)<0.0011.45 (1.31 to 1.61)<0.001
Hospital admission ±28 daysNo13 047Reference___
Yes31932.28 (2.07 to 2.51)<0.0011.58 (1.42 to 1.77)<0.001
Health board of residenceA6943Reference
B92971.15 (1.06 to 1.26)<0.0011.14 (1.03 to 1.25)0.01
Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile1 (most deprived)3251Reference
228640.83 (0.72 to 0.96)0.010.81 (0.70 to 0.94)0.01
328491.07 (0.94 to 1.24)0.291.00 (0.86 to 1.15)0.99
436041.07 (0.94 to 1.22)0.310.88 (0.77 to 1.01)0.07
5 (least deprived)23410.93 (0.80 to 1.09)0.380.84 (0.72 to 0.98)0.03
COVID-19 wave12432Reference
243300.84 (0.74 to 0.95)0.0050.86 (0.75 to 0.99)0.03
394780.53 (0.47 to 0.60)<0.0010.71 (0.62 to 0.81)<0.001