Table 1

Risk of intergenerational cycle of stunting based on child characteristics, main independent variable and potential confounders

VariablesAllAt riskUnadjusted OR
(95% CI)
P value
Weighted nWeighted %Weighted nWeighted %
Maternal and neonatal continuum of care
 Continuum/complete16125.1161101
 Incomplete29.99194.9407913.61.41 (1.11 to 1.81)0.006*
Antenatal care visit
 Appropriate with WHO recommendation47401549810.51
 Below the WHO recommendation26.86385373413.91.3 (1.19 to 1.62)0.006*
Postpartum care visit complete11.02934.9140112.71
 Incomplete20.57465.1283913.81.09 (0.99 to 1.21)0.078
Neonatal care visit
 Complete13.93644.1171412.31
 Incomplete17.66755.9252614.31.2 (1.08 to 1.31)0.001*
Birth weight
 ≥ −2 SD29.96094.8347511.61
 < −2 SD16435.233820.61.98 (1.62 to 2.42)< 0.001*
Birth length
 ≥ −2 SD28.69690.8350112.21
 < −2 SD29079.263121.71.97 (1.60 to 2.43)< 0.001*
Gender
 Boys15.96050.5228214.31
 Girls15.64349.5195512.51.16 (1.06 to 1.28)0.002*
Age (months)
 0–5730023.16949.51
 6–11809125.67699.51.00 (0.86 to 1.17)0.982
 12–2416.21251.3277217.11.97 (1.73 to 2.25)< 0.001*
Mother’s education
 ≥ High school15.51749.1161410.41
 < High school16.08650.9262216.31.66 (1.52 to 1.84)<0.001*
Father’s education
 ≥ High school16.05450.8163810.21
 < High school15.54949.2261216.81.77 (1.59 to 1.97)<0.001*
Mother’s occupation
 Housewife20.05363.5270713.51
 Working mother11.52836.5152113.20.97 (0.88 to 1.07)0.530
Father’s occupation
 Fix income649324.865610.11
 Unfix income19.08672.9280614.71.53 (1.32 to 1.77)<0.001*
 Unemployment6022.36310.41.03 (0.69 to 1.54)0.889
Place of residence
 Urban16.93953.6196511.61
 Rural14.66446.4227215.51.41 (1.28 to 1.55)< 0.001*
Economic status
 Quintile 1 (poorest)708822.8117716.62.18 (1.83 to 2.59)< 0.001*
 Quintile 2643520.7100415.62.03 (1.69 to 2.42)< 0.001*
 Quintile 3612419.787614.31.83 (1.52 to 2.22)< 0.001*
 Quintile 455961861611.01.35 (1.11 to 1.64)< 0.001*
 Quintile 5 (richest)584418.84918.41
Birth weight
 ≥ −2 SD29.96094.8347511.61
 < −2 SD16435.233820.61.98 (1.62 to 2.42)< 0.001*
Birth length
 ≥ −2 SD28.69690.8350112.21
 < −2 SD29079.263121.71.97 (1.60 to 2.43)< 0.001*
  • *Significant p value ≤0.05.