Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria with rationale

Inclusion criteriaRationale
≥70 years of agePOD most commonly appears in older patients
Scheduled to undergo major orthopaedic surgery (total hip replacement, total knee replacement, spine surgery)Major orthopaedic surgeries are associated with an increased risk for POD27 47
Exclusion criteriaRationale
Inability to give consent due to, but not limited to, pre-existing severe dementia (diagnosis or MMSE<18), Parkinson’s disease or other movement disorders, severe neurocognitive damage, severe psychiatric illness, blindness or deafness.Inability to ethically enrol individuals of this population due to study burden
Expected postoperative recovery for less than 24 hoursWe will be unable to assess for POD
Patient with more than 2 days spent in the ICU during the month prior to surgeryPre-existing operations/illnesses may temporarily disrupt sleep and confound the study
Patient with inability to wear actiwatch (due to, but not limited to, infection at the site of watch, allergies to the material of watch, limited mobility)Required for activity rhythm assessment
Non-English-speaking or insufficient vision and/or hearingInability to administer cognitive assessments that are primarily validated in English
  • ICU, intensive care unit; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; POD, postoperative delirium.