Table 4

Participant characteristics by category of treatment burden (original version of 10-question MTBQ, n=243)

CharacteristicNNone or low
(MTBQ score
0–10)
Medium or high (MTBQ score ≥11)Univariable analysisAdjusted analysis
OR* (95% CI)P valueOR* (95% CI)P value
Participants24399 (40.7%)144 (59.3%)
Age group (n, (%))
 18–70 years11027 (24.5%)83 (75.5%)1.001.00
 71+ years13272 (54.5%)60 (45.5%)0.27 (0.16 to 0.47)<0.0010.24 (0.13 to 0.44)<0.001
Gender (n, (%))
Male13056 (43.1%)74 (56.9%)1.001.00
 Female11243 (38.4%)69 (61.6%)1.21 (0.73 to 2.03)0.4601.26 (0.73 to 2.19)0.403
 Ethnicity (n, (%))
 White22994 (41.0%)135 (59.0%)1.001.00
 Non-white134 (30.8%)9 (69.2%)1.57 (0.47 to 5.24)0.4661.30 (0.35 to 4.89)0.694
Deprivation score (n, (%))‡
 Quintile 1–2 (least deprived)9847 (48.0%)51 (52.0%)1.001.00
 Quintile 37424 (32.4%)50 (67.6%)1.92 (1.02 to 3.60)0.0421.56 (0.80 to 3.05)0.197
 Quintile 4–5 (most deprived)7128 (39.4%)43 (60.6%)1.42 (0.76 to 2.63)0.2720.87 (0.43 to 1.76)0.696
No of long-term conditions (n, (%))†
 313654 (39.7%)82 (60.3%)1.001.00
 47329 (39.7%)44 (60.3%)1.00 (0.56 to 1.79)0.9981.38 (0.72 to 2.64)0.335
 ≥53416 (47.1%)18 (52.9%)0.74 (0.35 to 1.58)0.4371.27 (0.55 to 2.93)0.577
Age left full-time education (years; n, (%))
 ≤1617679 (44.9%)97 (55.1%)1.001.00
 17+6418 (28.1%)46 (71.9%)2.08 (1.12 to 3.87)0.0211.92 (0.99 to 3.73)0.055
Employment status (n, (%))
 Retired14374 (51.7%)69 (48.3%)1.001.00
 Not retired10025 (25.0%)75 (75.0%)3.22 (1.84 to 5.63)<0.0011.86 (0.87 to 3.96)0.108
Long-term conditions (n, (%))†
 Cardiovascular disease20991 (43.5%)118 (56.5%)0.40 (0.17 to 0.92)0.0320.48 (0.20 to 1.19)0.113
 Stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)7131 (43.7%)40 (56.3%)0.84 (0.48 to 1.48)0.5520.99 (0.54 to 1.82)0.978
 Diabetes14159 (41.8%)82 (58.2%)0.90 (0.53 to 1.51)0.6810.83 (0.47 to 1.47)0.522
 Chronic kidney disease6835 (51.5%)33 (48.5%)0.54 (0.31 to 0.96)0.0350.58 (0.26 to 1.28)0.177
 COPD or asthma11849 (41.5%)69 (58.5%)0.94 (0.56 to 1.57)0.8090.70 (0.39 to 1.25)0.229
 Epilepsy205 (25.0%)15 (75.0%)2.19 (0.77 to 6.22)0.1431.49 (0.49 to 4.52)0.481
 Atrial fibrillation7843 (55.1%)35 (44.9%)0.42 (0.24 to 0.73)0.0020.60 (0.31 to 1.15)0.127
 Severe mental health problems135 (38.5%)8 (61.5%)1.11 (0.35 to 3.49)0.8641.11 (0.32 to 3.85)0.866
 Depression10625 (23.6%)81 (76.4%)3.81 (2.17 to 6.66)<0.0013.11 (1.71 to 5.65)<0.001
 Learning disability41 (25.0%)3 (75.0%)2.09 (0.21 to 20.34)0.5270.92 (0.09 to 9.38)0.947
 Rheumatoid arthritis173 (17.6%)14 (82.4%)3.45 (0.96 to 12.33)0.0574.34 (1.14 to 16.48)0.031
 Heart failure3117 (54.8%)14 (45.2%)0.52 (0.24 to 1.11)0.0910.52 (0.21 to 1.27)0.151
  • *ORs>1 indicate a higher odds of medium/high treatment burden in patients with this characteristic compared with the reference characteristic (indicated by an OR of 1). For the multivariable analyses, each model was adjusted for age, gender, deprivation and number of comorbidities.

  • †Long-term conditions from electronic GP records. Please note, similar long-term conditions are grouped together (eg, COPD/asthma, stroke/TIA).

  • ‡Based on Townsend Deprivation Index scores.18

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GP, general practitioner; MTBQ, Multimorbidity Treatment Burden Questionnaire.