Table 2

Adjusted* associations for ANC-seeking indicators among those who delivered between 2012 and 2017, per kilometre linear increase in residential distance to the nearest primary health facility in rural Mali

CharacteristicsAny ANC (yes vs no)Number of total antenatal visits (count)Four or more total antenatal visits (yes vs no)First antenatal visit in the first trimester (yes vs no)
Yes=541463.2%Mean=3, SD=1§Yes=7508.75%Yes=220225.7%†
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Distance (per kilometre)‡ 0.95 (0.91 to 0.98) <0.01 0.96 (0.94 to 0.98) <0.01 0.90 (0.86 to 0.95) <0.01 0.94 (0.91 to 0.98) <0.01
Age (years)
 20–341.001.001.001.00
 15–191.09 (0.84 to 1.41)0.540.98 (0.89 to 1.08)0.660.81 (0.54 to 1.22)0.320.86 (0.60 to 1.23)0.40
 35–490.96 (0.86 to 1.08)0.491.00 (0.95 to 1.05)0.97 0.81 (0.66 to 0.98) 0.03 1.01 (0.91 to 1.14)0.80
Married and monogamous1.001.001.001.00
Polygamous with first wife1.09 (0.92 to 1.31)0.321.04 (0.98 to 1.10)0.251.16 (0.95 to 1.41)0.141.07 (0.93 to 1.23)0.32
Polygamous with second or higher order wife1.02 (0.89 to 1.16)0.811.02 (0.96 to 1.08)0.481.18 (0.99 to 1.42)0.071.05 (0.89 to 1.23)0.58
Single, widowed, divorced or separated 0.49 (0.30 to 0.80) <0.01 0.76 (0.60 to 0.96) 0.02 0.57 (0.25 to 1.30)0.19 1.63 (1.09 to 2.43) 0.02
Ethnicity
 Dogon1.001.001.001.00
 Peulh 0.44 (0.33 to 0.59) <0.01 0.79 (0.68 to 0.93) <0.01 1.25 (0.86 to 1.82)0.24 1.56 (1.14 to 2.13) <0.01
 Others1.13 (0.66 to 1.94)0.651.02 (0.86 to 1.20)0.861.16 (0.70 to 1.93)0.560.91 (0.65 to 1.28)0.60
No formal education1.001.001.001.00
Education any school (madrasah or French) 1.95 (1.48 to 2.57) <0.01 1.21 (1.12 to 1.31) <0.01 1.39 (1.10 to 1.76) <0.01 1.46 (1.23 to 1.74) <0.01
Occupation
 Housewife1.001.001.001.00
 Small business or trader 1.34 (1.12 to 1.61) <0.01 1.12 (1.05 to 1.19) <0.01 1.41 (1.14 to 1.75) <0.01 0.95 (0.77 to 1.16)0.59
Socioeconomic status
 Poorest1.001.001.001.00
 Poor0.99 (0.81 to 1.21)0.951.04 (0.97 to 1.12)0.25 1.41 (1.08 to 1.84) 0.01 1.04 (0.86 to 1.25)0.72
 Middle0.99 (0.81 to 1.22)0.941.05 (0.98 to 1.13)0.161.26 (0.99 to 1.6200.070.88 (0.75 to 1.05)0.15
 Rich0.96 (0.79 to 1.16)0.661.03 (0.96 to 1.11)0.421.23 (0.93 to 1.63)0.150.98 (0.82 to 1.17)0.79
 Richest1.16 (0.89 to 1.53)0.27 1.11 (1.01 to 1.21) 0.03 1.43 (1.12 to 1.85) <0.01 0.98 (0.80 to 1.21)0.86
Season
 Hot (March–May)1.001.001.001.00
 June 1.20 (1.01 to 1.42) 0.04 1.06 (0.99 to 1.13)0.090.90 (0.65 to 1.25)0.521.16 (0.92 to 1.46)0.21
 July1.02 (0.80 to 1.30)0.870.98 (0.91 to 1.05)0.550.88 (0.63 to 1.21)0.420.95 (0.73 to 1.24)0.71
 August0.99 (0.81 to 1.23)0.960.95 (0.88 to 1.03)0.19 0.71 (0.50 to 1.01) 0.06 0.87 (0.69 to 1.09)0.24
 September1.08 (0.87 to 1.34)0.480.98 (0.90 to 1.06)0.640.74 (0.53 to 1.03)0.080.95 (0.72 to 1.25)0.73
 October–November1.02 (0.87 to 1.20)0.811.00 (0.94 to 1.06)0.950.90 (0.73 to 1.11)0.330.99 (0.81 to 1.21)0.89
 Cold (December–February) 0.86 (0.76 to 0.98) 0.03 0.93 (0.88 to 0.98) <0.01 0.74 (0.59 to 0.92) <0.01 0.94 (0.79 to 1.12)0.48
Birth year
 20121.001.001.001.00
 20130.95 (0.82 to 1.09)0.470.98 (0.93 to 1.04)0.580.86 (0.67 to 1.09)0.211.06 (0.89 to 1.26)0.51
 20140.96 (0.82 to 1.11)0.550.96 (0.91 to 1.03)0.260.78 (0.58 to 1.04)0.09 1.20 (1.02 to 1.42) 0.03
 20151.05 (0.88 to 1.24)0.611.03 (0.96 to 1.09)0.421.05 (0.83 to 1.35)0.671.19 (1.00 to 1.42)0.05
 20160.98 (0.84 to 1.13)0.740.98 (0.92 to 1.03)0.400.82 (0.64 to 1.03)0.091.16 (0.98 to 1.38)0.09
 20171.00 (0.51 to 1.96)1.001.01 (0.78 to 1.30)0.950.73 (0.13 to 4.15)0.721.46 (0.40 to 5.35)0.57
  • Association shown in bold is statistically significant and the confidence interval exclude 1.

  • *Adjusted for year of delivery, season of delivery, maternal age, marital status, ethnicity, maternal education, maternal occupation, wealth index and clustering of women in villages.

  • †41% of those who received any ANC (ie, denominator of 5373) and 26% if the denominator is all women in the study population (ie, with or without ANC).

  • ‡In the main text of the results, we reported the ORs after transforming them to the median distance (5.7 km) increase, as half of the study population lived beyond that distance. Those are in addition to the per kilometre increase.

  • §SD refers to standard deviation of the mean.

  • ANC, antenatal care.