Table 2

Patient and facility characteristics associated with outpatient dual serum creatinine and urine albumin testing by mixed effect logistic model among US Veterans*

VariableAdjusted OR (95% CI)P value
Patient level
Male sex (reference: female)1.21 (1.20 to 1.23)<0.0001
Age (reference: <60 years)
 60–691.13 (1.12 to 1.14)<0.0001
 70–791.00 (0.99 to 1.01)0.57
 ≥800.69 (0.68 to 0.69)<0.0001
Race/ethnicity (reference: white)
 Black0.93 (0.92 to 0.93)<0.0001
 Hispanic1.06 (1.04 to 1.07)<0.0001
 American Indian/Alaska Native1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)0.08
 Asian1.13 (1.10 to 1.16)<0.0001
 Pacific Islander1.00 (0.98 to 1.03)0.28
 Others/unknown, missing0.92 (0.91 to 0.93)<0.0001
Kidney function† (reference: eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2)
 60–901.03 (1.02 to 1.03)<0.0001
 30–600.97 (0.96 to 0.98)<0.0001
 15–300.65 (0.64 to 0.67)<0.0001
 <15, not on dialysis0.29 (0.27 to 0.30)<0.0001
 Dialysis0.16 (0.16 to 0.17)<0.0001
 Transplant0.36 (0.34 to 0.37)<0.0001
 eGFR value missing0.11 (0.11 to 0.12)<0.0001
Diabetes mellitus10.40 (10.34 to 10.45)<0.0001
Hypertension1.41 (1.40 to 1.42)<0.0001
Coronary artery disease1.13 (1.12 to 1.13)<0.0001
Heart failure0.93 (0.93 to 0.94)<0.0001
Dysrhythmia0.87 (0.87 to 0.88)<0.0001
Stroke0.94 (0.94 to 0.95)<0.0001
Peripheral vascular disease0.99 (0.98 to 1.00)<0.01
Other cardiac conditions0.78 (0.77 to 0.79)<0.0001
Nephrology visit within same calendar year1.65 (1.63 to 1.68)<0.0001
Year1.03 (1.03 to 1.03)<0.0001
Facility level
Centre dual testing rank (quintile, ascending)1.67 (1.66 to 1.68)<0.0001
Complexity level (reference: 1a)
  Complexity 1b0.87 (0.53 to 1.44)0.5839
  Complexity 1c1.03 (0.64 to 1.64)0.9132
  Complexity 21.01 (0.59 to 1.74)0.9588
  Complexity 31.14 (0.71 to 1.84)0.5778
  • *Mixed effect logistic model based on a randomly selected 10% sample of each annual US veteran cohort from 2009 to 2018 (n=6 910 239). Facility clustering is adjusted by random intercepts.

  • †eGFR value calculated based on serum creatinine tests in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

  • eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.