Table 1

The four clinical vignettes used in this study

Vignette nameDescription
ImprovementA post operative case of a 66-year-old man with bilateral pneumonia. Clinico-biological improvement after a 5-day course of antibiotics.
WorseningA 65-year-old woman with lobar pneumonia who deteriorates to requiring mechanical ventilation. After initial stabilisation after 4 days of antibiotics, there is a decline in clinical and biological status.
Discordant: clinically better, labs worse (‘disc clin better’)A 62-year-old man with a severe lobar pneumonia requiring mech ventilation who improves clinically at 7 days and is extubated after an antibiotic course, but whose blood biomarkers are worse.
Discordant: clinically worse, labs better (‘disc clin worse’)A 54-year-old man with multilobar pneumonia who completes a course of antibiotics, is extubated but then deteriorates clinically despite improving blood biomarkers of infection.