Table 1

Studies included in the review

Source (alphabetical by country)Country and locationStudy design and source of dataStudy populationDates of presentation for ART initiationSample sizeSex (% female)Age (median, IQR)
Lebelonyane et al (2020)12Botswana (national sample)Subset of baseline data for intervention arm of cluster randomised trial of HIV preventionAdults found to be HIV positive during community HIV prevention campaign and linked to HIV careJune 2016–March 201880055%33 (26–41)
Buju et al22Democratic Republic of Congo (Bunia)Observational prospective cohort of patients receiving dolutegravirAdults presenting for ART initiation or ongoing ART treatment at all ART clinics in BusiaJuly 2019–July 2021 for those initiating during the study; earlier for those already on ART17769%39 (12)*
Genet et al23Ethiopia (Northwest Ethiopia)Observational, cross-sectional study of first-line treatment failureAdults† who had received at least 6 months of ARTMay–October 201743058%38 (12–67)‡
Kunzweiler et al15Kenya (Kisumu)Observational prospective cohortAdult men who have sex with menAugust 2015–September 2016630%27 (22–32)
Rosen et al17Kenya (Kericho, Kapsabet and Kombewa counties)Baseline data for intervention arm of clinical trial of same-day ART initiationAdults presenting for ART initiation at three public sector hospitalsJuly 2017–April 201847758%36 (29–44)
Barnabas et al18South Africa (KwaZulu Natal Province)Baseline data from clinical trial of fee for ART home deliveryAdults living in study community and presenting for ART initiationOctober 2019–January 2020646%§36 (31–43)§
Dorward et al21South Africa (KwaZulu Natal Province)Baseline data for randomised controlled trial for point-of-care HIV viral load testingAdults clinically stable on ART and due for 6-month viral load testingAugust 2016–February 2017 (est)39060%32 (27–38)
Maskew et al16South Africa (Gauteng Province)Baseline data for intervention arm in clinical trial of same-day ART initiationAdults presenting for ART initiation at three public sector clinicsMarch–September 201829664%35 (30–44)
Mavhandu-Ramarumo (2019)19South Africa (Limpopo Province)Baseline samples from clinical trial of drug resistanceAdults presenting for ART initiation at three public sector clinics2017–20197790%35 (27–42)
Rosen et al17South Africa (Gauteng Province)Baseline data for intervention arm of clinical trial of same-day ART initiationAdults presenting for ART initiation at three public sector clinicsMarch–July 201760063%34 (29–41)
Sithole et al20South Africa (KwaZulu Natal Province)Subset of baseline data from clinical trial of home-based ART initiationNon-pregnant adults presenting for ART initiation at two public sector clinics, with CD4>100 and no active TBFebruary 2018–November 201819360%Not reported
Pry et al13Zambia (Lusaka)Subset from implementation trial that used viral load testing at baselineAdults diagnosed and initiating ART at two government facilitiesMay 2021–March 202224863%30 (25–37)
  • *Mean (SD).

  • †Study included children under 18, but they comprised<7% of the study sample.

  • ‡Mean (minimum–maximum).

  • §Study enrolled a larger sample of patients already on ART—only six were reported as initiating or reinitiating. Characteristics reported are for the entire study population, not solely for a subsample of six who initiated treatment.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy.