Table 2

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Infants born full term (>37 weeks gestation)Stillbirth or live birth where the baby is born alive but dies shortly after
Infants diagnosed with *CHD and scheduled for surgery involving CPBInfants who are born healthy with no underlying illness, syndrome, or chronic disease
Infants born in Ireland to allow sample follow-upParticipation in another study
Ability of the participant’s parent/carers (in the investigator’s opinion) to comprehend the full nature and purpose of the studyInfants not undergoing surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass
Consent to participate in the study and willingness to comply with the protocol and study restrictions by the participant’s parent/carersInfants where parents/carers do not give consent to participate in the study
Gastrointestinal pathology or intestinal surgery, excluding gastrostomy tube
  • *CHD diagnoses and subtypes are presented in table 1.

  • CHD, congenital heart disease; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass .