Table 3

Results of adjusted logistic regression analysis of the association between sociodemographic characteristics and adolescent pregnancy, 1988–2019

Survey years1988–19982003–20082011–2019Overall sample (1988–2019)
Population analysed (unweighted)25413350866514 556
Number currently pregnant (unweighted)96117282495
Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
AgeP<0.001P<0.001P<0.001P<0.001
 15–170.40 (0.24 to 0.66)0.39 (0.24 to 0.64)0.22 (0.15 to 0.33)0.30 (0.23 to 0.39)
 18–191.001.001.001.00
Place of residenceP=0.23P=0.72P=0.002P<0.001
 Urban0.74 (0.45 to 1.22)0.86 (0.40 to 1.89)0.54 (0.36 to 0.81)0.56 (0.43 to 0.74)
 Rural1.001.001.001.00
Sex of household headP=0.23P=0.06P=0.60P=0.42
 Male1.61 (0.73 to 3.54)0.61 (0.36 to 1.02)0.91 (0.63 to 1.31)0.89 (0.66 to 1.19)
 Female1.001.001.001.00
Number of household membersP=0.001P=0.02P=0.19P<0.001
 ≤4 members1.001.001.001.00
 >4 members0.46 (0.29 to 0.73)0.58 (0.37 to 0.91)0.78 (0.54 to 1.13)0.62 (0.49 to 0.78)
Mother still aliveP=0.07P=0.48P=0.94
 Yes0.30 (0.08 to 1.09)0.58 (0.13 to 2.58)0.94 (0.24 to 3.77)
 No1.001.001.00
Father still aliveP=0.85P=0.86P=0.99P=0.84
 Yes1.001.001.001.00
 No1.12 (0.36 to 3.44)1.13 (0.30 to 4.21)1.00 (0.40 to 2.51)1.08 (0.52 to 2.24)
Literacy levelP=0.001*P<0.001*P<0.001*P<0.001*
 Illiterate1.001.001.001.00
 Semi-literate0.55 (0.20 to 1.50)0.42 (0.22 to 0.81)0.66 (0.39 to 1.13)0.56 (0.39 to 0.82)
 Literate0.40 (0.23 to 0.69)0.27 (0.16 to 0.45)0.27 (0.17 to 0.42)0.28 (0.21 to 0.37)
EmploymentP=0.05P=0.29P=0.12P=0.01
 Yes1.001.001.001.00
 No0.61 (0.37 to 1.01)0.73 (0.41 to 1.31)0.59 (0.30 to 1.15)0.62 (0.43 to 0.90)
Household incomeP=0.56P<0.001*P=0.27P=0.03*
 Low income1.001.001.001.00
 Middle income0.67 (0.32 to 1.39)0.65 (0.39 to 1.09)1.09 (0.70 to 1.69)0.91 (0.67 to 1.24)
 High income0.88 (0.45 to 1.74)0.30 (0.15 to 0.58)0.63 (0.32 to 1.26)0.59 (0.36 to 0.94)
Frequency of media exposureP=0.82P=0.23P=0.51
 Not at all1.001.001.00
 Less than once a week1.40 (0.45 to 4.37)1.29 (0.62 to 2.69)1.25 (0.68 to 2.32)
 At least once a week1.04 (0.49 to 2.20)1.70 (0.91 to 3.18)1.34 (0.82 to 2.20)
  • *Test for linear trend