Table 2

Results of case–control studies

Studies finding significant associationStudies not finding significant association
Studies, nParticipants in studies, nStudies, nParticipants in studies, n
Birth outcomesCaesarean delivery12651 224169751
Premature delivery (<37 weeks)10648 804169807
Small for gestational age121910648 318
Low birth weight121301110
Neonatal outcomesAdmission to neonatal care8432 51211306 407
Need for non-invasive respiratory support288 23800
Need for mechanical ventilation288 23800
Neurological disease179188 159
Necrotising enterocolitis0000
Other gastrointestinal disease0000
Sepsis00288 214
Infant outcomesHearing impairment219100
Developmental outcomes0000
Any breast feeding (exclusive or mixed feeding)2145288 422
Infant or neonatal death001096 688