Table 3

Results from all COVID-19-positive pregnancies (pooled cohort studies and case–control studies)

Studies reporting, nSARS-CoV-2 exposed infants included, nWeighted meanRange
Birth outcomesPremature delivery (<37 weeks)16542 72613.8%0%–81%
Small for gestational age5523 9114.0%0%–44%
Low birth weight2536291.0%0%–50%
Neonatal outcomesAdmission to neonatal care11831 41311.0%0%–100%
Need for non-invasive respiratory support2760371.0%0%–80%
Need for mechanical ventilation2753410.4%0%–20%
Neurological disease1333760.2%0%–7%
Necrotising enterocolitis1029370.0%0%–22%
Other gastrointestinal disease63600.0%0%–5%
Sepsis1546970.1%0%–7%
Infant outcomesHearing impairment41970.1%0%–31%
Developmental outcomes23390.0%0%–64%
Breast feeding38756512.0%0%–100%
Infant or neonatal death9923 8260.4%0%–18%