Table 1

Characteristics of all eligible participants from HSE 1997 to 2014

Opioid non-usersOpioid users
Number (%)122 270 (98.02)2470 (1.98)
Age, mean (±SD)48.47 (±17.75)59.00 (±15.38)
Gender
Female, n (%)67 584 (97.77)1544 (2.23)
Male, n (%)54 686 (98.33)926 (1.67)
Ethnicity
White107 797 (97.87)2343 (2.13)
Non-white14 390 (99.14)125 (0.86)
Income decile
1—lowest10 300 (97.41)274 (2.59)
210 288 (97.30)286 (2.71)
310 218 (96.63)356 (3.37)
410 272 (97.15)301 (2.85)
510 342 (98.34)231 (2.18)
610 398 (98.74)175 (1.66)
710 440 (98.74)133 (1.26)
810 475 (99.07)98 (0.93)
910 461 (98.94)112 (1.06)
10—highest10 487 (99.19)86 (0.81)
Income missing18 589 (97.80)418 (2.20)
Employment status
 Student4123 (99.66)14 (0.34)
 Employed69 564 (99.33)465 (0.66)
 Unemployed2367 (99.25)18 (0.75)
 Ill or disabled4726 (86.87)714 (13.13)
 Retired29 055 (96.46)1067 (3.54)
 Domestic worker*11 321 (98.56)165 (1.44)
 Other1071 (97.72)25 (2.28)
 Employment missing43 (95.55)2 (4.44)
Education†
 Higher education36 026 (98.79)441 (1.21)
 A-levels13 896 (98.71)181 (1.29)
 O-levels/GCSE31 358 (98.16)586 (1.83)
 Foreign/other3624 (97.84)80 (2.16)
 No qualifications31 238 (96.51)1130 (3.49)
 Full time student6026 (99.19)49 (0.81)
 Education missing102 (97.14)3 (2.86)
  • *Any person engaged in domestic work within an employment relationship.

  • †The O-level and A-level examination certificates are the secondary and pre-university credentials in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The O levels, or ordinary levels, typically represent a total of 11 years of study and mark the end of the secondary education cycle. A-levels, or advanced level qualifications, are subject-based qualifications (leading to university, further study, training or work), studied by students in Sixth Form, which refers to the last 2 years of secondary education (ages 16–18). A General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is a qualification normally taken by most UK students at the end of compulsory education.

  • HSE, Health Survey for England.