(A)Robust (n=65)(B)Pre-frailty (n=69)(C)Frailty (n=29)P*
n(%)n(%)n(%)
nMeanSDnMeanSDnMeanSD
Sex (female)24(36.9)21(30.4)14(48.3)0.242
Age (years)6570.55.676973.26.872972.68.620.070
Height (cm)59162.76.9367163.57.2827158.38.720.009
Weight (kg)5859.88.966859.88.112654.810.130.031
Chronic disease
 Hypertension23(35.9)23(33.3)13(44.8)0.556
 Diabetes11(17.2)8(11.6)3(10.3)0.549
 Stroke00.000.02(6.9)0.010
 Cancer7(10.9)5(7.2)3(10.3)0.745
 Heart disease7(10.9)6(8.7)2(6.9)0.805
 Hip pain23(35.9)22(31.9)10(34.5)0.883
 Knee pain9(14.1)16(23.2)11(37.9)0.036
Self-rated health0.001
 Very healthy8(12.5)7(10.1)1(3.4)
 Healthy enough52(81.3)53(76.8)16(55.2)
 Not very healthy3(4.7)8(11.6)8(27.6)
 Not healthy1(1.6)1(1.4)4(13.8)
Health assessment
 KCL651.91.01695.31.042910.62.40<0.001
 WHO-55418.23.655615.64.732011.74.01<0.001
 DVS325.51.95234.91.93114.81.720.388
 TMIG-IC3512.31.052911.80.831111.71.010.062
Daily walking parameters
 DWS (m/s)651.270.12691.250.14291.190.210.060
 DW step length (cm)6566.45.266965.95.742962.38.350.009
 DW step length / Height (%)5940.82.586740.43.422739.84.130.397
 DW cadence (step/min)65115.17.3469114.57.6129114.68.690.913
 Number of steps (steps/day)652427.11815.08692699.52799.45292810.62416.510.710
 Number of measurements651468.71361.74691478.81683.49291290.71170.590.832