Table 2

Mental health status of pregnant and postpartum women during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic

PregnantPostpartum
N% (95% CI)Mean (SD)N% (95% CI)Mean (SD)
EDSGeneral3240100.07.2 (5.2)1696100.07.5 (5.1)
Score ≥1096629.8 (28.2 to 31.4)N/A53831.7 (29.5 to 33.9)N/A
Score ≥1352216.1 (14.8 to 17.4)N/A28917.0 (15.2 to 18.8)N/A
Norway (≥13)36615.4 (14.0 to 16.9)N/A18316.4 (14.4 to 18.7)N/A
Belgium (≥13)3912.7 (9.4 to 16.9)N/A3516.8 (12.3 to 22.5)N/A
UK (≥13)8635.1 (29.4 to 41.3)N/A3538.0 (28.7 to 48.3)N/A
Switzerland (≥13)169.2 (5.7 to 14.6)N/A2013.3 (8.8 to 19.8)N/A
Netherlands (≥13)1510.8 (6.6 to 17.1)N/A1612.0 (7.5 to 18.7)N/A
EDS-3AScore ≥598230.3 (28.7 to 31.9)3.3 (2.2)57734.0 (31.8 to 36.3)3.5 (2.2)
GAD-7Total3216100.05.7 (4.7)1680100.05.6 (4.5)
Minimal (0–4)154648.1 (46.3 to 49.8)N/A79147.1 (44.7 to 49.5)N/A
Mild (5–9)111134.5 (32.9 to 36.2)N/A59235.2 (33.0 to 37.5)N/A
Moderate (10–14)33910.5 (9.5 to 11.6)N/A20812.4 (10.8 to 14.0)N/A
Severe (15–21)2206.8 (6.0 to 7.7)N/A895.3 (4.2 to 6.4)N/A
Norway (10–21)44918.9 (17.4 to 20.5)N/A22920.6 (18.3 to 23.0)N/A
Belgium (10–21)3210.6 (7.6 to 14.7)N/A2512.4 (8.5 to 17.7)N/A
UK (10–21)5824.2 (19.2 to 30.0)N/A2224.7 (16.9 to 34.7)N/A
Switzerland (10–21)84.8 (2.4 to 9.3)N/A106.9 (3.7 to 12.3)N/A
Netherlands (10–21)129.0 (5.2 to 15.2)N/A118.4 (4.7 to 14.5)N/A
  • Total score from 0 to 30, cut-off of ≥10 indicating moderate symptoms of depression, cut-off ≥13 indicating symptoms of moderate to severe depression.10

  • EDS-3A ≥5 on the subscale was considered as high risk for anxiety.

  • Total scores range between 0 and 21 with higher scores indicating more generalised anxiety.

  • Total GAD-7 scores were categorised into minimal (0–4), mild (5–9), moderate (10–14) and severe (15–21) anxiety.15

  • Missing data were <6% for EDS and 7% for GAD−7.

  • EDS, Edinburgh Depression Scale; GAD-7, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale; N/A, not applicable.