Table 3

Factors associated with major depressive symptoms (EDS ≥13) among pregnant and postpartum women

PregnantPostpartum
cOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)cOR (95% CI)aOR* (95% CI)
Country
NorwayRefRefRefRef
Belgium0.80 (0.56 to 1.13)0.87 (0.58 to 1.28)1.02 (0.69 to 1.53)0.94 (0.62 to 1.43)
Switzerland0.56 (0.33 to 0.95)0.63 (0.36 to 1.12)0.78 (0.48 to 1.28)0.66 (0.38 to 1.15)
The Netherlands0.66 (0.38 to 1.15)0.74 (0.40 to 1.36)0.69 (0.40 to 1.20)0.64 (0.37 to 1.13)
UK2.97 (2.23 to 3.95)2.96 (2.12 to 4.13)3.12 (1.99 to 4.89)2.51 (1.52 to 4.12)
Professional status
Professionally activeRefRefRefRef
Not professionally active1.99 (1.53 to 2.59)NI1.49 (1.02 to 2.20)1.40 (0.95 to 2.08)
Healthcare worker
Yes0.75 (0.60 to 0.95)0.80 (0.63 to 1.01)1.06 (0.79 to 1.43)NI
Smoking
Yes1.84 (0.92 to 3.67)NI1.47 (0.62 to 3.44)NI
COVID-19 status
NoneRefRefRefRef
Positive test/symptomatic1.56 (1.19 to 2.04)1.32 (0.96 to 1.82)1.33 (0.97 to 1.82)1.67 (1.11 to 2.51)
Pre-existing mental illness
Yes2.60 (1.64 to 4.10)2.45 (1.39 to 4.31)4.52 (2.28 to 8.98)4.12 (2.01 to 8.45)
Planned pregnancy
YesRefRefRefRef
No1.81 (1.29 to 2.56)1.71 (1.12 to 2.62)N/AN/A
No, but it was not unexpected1.32 (1.02 to 1.72)1.31 (0.97 to 1.78)N/AN/A
Currently breast feeding†
NoN/AN/A1.86 (1.26 to 2.74)1.53 (1.00 to 2.35)
  • *Adjusted for country, professional status, COVID-19 status, pre-existing mental illness and currently breast feeding.

  • †Refers to breast feeding at the time of survey completion. If not otherwise stated, the reference group is the counterpart.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; cOR, crude OR; EDS, Edinburgh Depression Scale; N/A, not available; NI, not included.