Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants, n=5210

Pregnant (n=3411)Postpartum (n=1799)
n (%)n (%)
Sociodemographic characteristics
Country
Norway2376 (69.7)1113 (61.9)
Belgium360 (10.5)235 (13.0)
UK290 (8.5)120 (6.7)
Switzerland210 (6.2)176 (9.8)
Netherlands175 (5.1)155 (8.6)
Maternal age (years)
18–301374 (40.3)675 (37.5)
31–401707 (50.0)897 (49.9)
>4068 (2.0)44 (2.4)
Relationship status
Married/cohabiting/ partner3092 (90.6)1595 (88.6)
Single57 (1.7)21 (1.2)
Professional status
Professionally active2799 (82.1)1430 (79.5)
Not professionally active348 (10.2)176 (9.8)
Education level
Low73 (2.1)34 (1.9)
Medium540 (15.8)290 (16.1)
High2516 (73.8)1279 (71.1)
Healthcare worker
Yes906 (26.6)486 (27.0)
No1879 (55.1)947 (52.6)
Smoking in pregnancy/post partum
Yes43 (1.3)31 (1.7)
No3106 (91.0)1585 (88.1)
COVID-19 characteristics
COVID-19 status*
Positive test163 (4.8)100 (5.6)
Symptomatic†224 (6.6)159 (8.8)
None2957 (86.7)1501 (83.4)
Severity of the infection
No or mild symptoms128 (3.8)97 (5.4)
Moderate symptoms185 (5.4)72 (4.0)
Hospitalised/long-term symptoms70 (2.1)31 (1.7)
Family member infected with COVID-19
Yes520 (15.2)352 (19.6)
No2820 (82.7)1406 (78.1)
Health and reproductive characteristics
Pre-existing mental illness
Depression60 (1.8)19 (1.1)
Anxiety49 (1.4)26 (1.4)
Chronic somatic illness
Asthma195 (5.7)74 (4.1)
Allergy634 (18.6)230 (12.8)
Cardiovascular diseases44 (1.3)46 (2.6)
Diabetes33 (1.0)27 (1.5)
Epilepsy17 (0.5)0 (0.0)
Hypothyroidism157 (4.6)24 (1.3)
Other‡343 (10.1)146 (8.1)
Parity§
Nulliparous87 (5.2)N/A
Multiparous1580 (94.8)N/A
Infant age
≤6 weeksN/A674 (37.4)
6–12 weeksN/A1102 (61.3)
Planned pregnancy
Yes2673 (78.3)N/A
No208 (6.1)N/A
No, but it was not unexpected465 (13.6)N/A
Gestational trimester
First trimester (<14 weeks)393 (11.5)N/A
Second trimester (14 to <28 weeks)1151 (33.7)N/A
Third trimester (28 weeks to end of pregnancy)1802 (52.8)N/A
Currently breast feeding¶
YesN/A1604 (89.1)
NoN/A172 (9.6)
Previous breastfeeding experience
YesN/A660 (36.7)
NoN/A942 (52.4)
  • Numbers may not add up due to missing values; missing values for pregnant women: maternal age, relationship status and smoking in pregnancy, n=262 (7.7%), professional status, n=264 (7.7%), education level, n=282 (8.3%), healthcare worker, n=626 (18.4), COVID-19 status, n=66 (1.9%) and family member infected with COVID-19, n=71 (2.0%), severity of the infection, n≤5, planned pregnancy and gestational trimester, n=65 (2.0%). Missing values for postpartum women: maternal age, relationship status and smoking in postpartum, n=183 (10.2%), professional status, n=193 (10.7%), education level, n=196 (11.0%), healthcare worker, n=366 (20.3), COVID-19 status, n=39 (2.2%), severity of the infection, n=59 (3.7%), family member infected with COVID-19, n=41 (2.3%), infant age and currently breast feeding, n=23 (1.3%), previous breastfeeding experience, n=197 (10.9%).

  • *Refers to COVID-19 status since the start of the pandemic (not limited to pregnancy or post partum).

  • †Refers to negative test, but presence of symptoms.

  • ‡Others include rheumatic illness, inflammatory bowel disease and other diseases.

  • §Applicable to women who have been pregnant before, n=1667.

  • ¶Refers to breast feeding at the time of survey completion.

  • N/A, not applicable.