Table 1

Human papillomavirus testing study designs, by country

MalawiNigeriaSenegalUgandaZimbabwe
Number of clinics9 (5 hub, 4 spoke)1012 (4 hub, 8 spoke)104
DeviceCepheid GeneXpertCepheid GeneXpertCepheid GeneXpertCepheid GeneXpert (hub)
Hologic Panther (centralised)
Hologic Panther
Testing modelHub* and spoke†Centralised‡Hub and spokeHub and centralisedCentralised
Sample collection methodSelf-collected and clinician-collectedSelf-collected and clinician-collectedSelf-collected and clinician-collectedSelf-collection onlyClinician-collected only
Implementation periodNovember 2019–April 2020January 2021September 2020–December 2020Hub: September 2019–October 2020
Centralised: July 2020–April 2021
July 2020–December 2020
Number of months614Hub: 14
Centralised: 10
6
Semi-qualitative surveys conductedYesNoNoYesNo
Patient results receipt modelAt next ART visit or by phone call or text message§Direct from laboratoryBy appointment or by phone call or text messageAt next ART visit or by phone call or text messageAt next ART visit or by phone call or text message
Treatment modalitiesOn-site cryotherapy or thermal ablation; referral for LEEP and suspicious of cancerOn-site thermal ablation; referral for LEEP and suspicious of cancerOn-site thermal ablation; referral for LEEP and suspicious of cancerOn-site cryotherapy or thermal ablation; on-site LEEP in one site, referral in other nine; referral if suspicious of cancerCryotherapy or thermal ablation on-site for some; referral for LEEP and suspicious of cancer
Target populationWLHIV aged 25–49 attending ART clinicsWLHIV aged 25–49 attending ART clinicsAll women 30–54 yearsWLHIV aged 25–49 attending ART clinicsWLHIV aged 30–49 attending ART clinics
  • *Hub sites are reflective of near-POC testing offered at on-site laboratories located at the same clinic as sample collection.

  • †Spoke sites are reflective of sample collection occurring at one clinic and then being transported to a hub site for testing with a near-POC device, Cepheid GeneXpert.

  • ‡Centralised sites are reflective of an established major testing laboratory servicing many clinics in the region and/or country, with existing referral systems and high throughput testing capacity.

  • §Phone call or text message only advised the patient that the result was ready at the clinic.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy ; LEEP, Loop Electro Excision Procedure; POC, point-of-care ; WLHIV, women living with HIV .