Table 2

Characteristics of the included reviews

Included reviewObjective/aimReview typeCountries/regions where the primary studies were conductedNo. of included studiesParticipants and sample sizeHealth topic of the reviewQuality assessment of the papers analysed in the reviewData synthesis method of the review
Egerton et al, 2017.27Exploration of the barriers and enablers to implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for osteoarthritis management in primary careSR QualitativeAustralia, France, UK, Germany, Mexico8Participants:
Primary care providers (PCPs) only including general practitioners (GPs), nurses, pharmacists and physical therapists
Sample size: 129
OsteoarthritisYes-Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklistMeta-synthesis
Ezeani, 2016.28Exploration of the barriers and recommendations to implementation of
CPGs for asthma management in primary care
SR QualitativeUSA, UK, Canada, Australia, The Netherlands, Sweden, Taiwan, Germany, Saudi Arabia, New Zealand, Singapore29Participants:
Asthma patients, parent caregivers and PCPs including GPs and nurses
Sample size: 1846
AsthmaYes-Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklistThematic analysis
Mathieson et al, 2018 29Exploration of the strategies, barriers and enablers to implementation of evidence-based practice in community nursingSR Mixed methodsSwitzerland, UK, Australia, USA, Canada, Sweden, Belgium, Norway, The Netherlands22Participants: PCPs without specifying the details
Sample size: not specified
Various health topicsYes-Assessment
template for disparate data developed by Hawker et al. (2002)*
Critical Interpretive
Neale et al, 202030Exploration of PCPs perceived barriers and enablers to the diagnosis and management of chronic kidney disease in primary careSR QualitativeUK, Australia, USA, Canada, The Netherlands22Participants:
PCPs only including GPs, nurses, practice managers, pharmacists and medical assistant
Sample size: around 803
Chronic kidney diseaseYes-Joanna
Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist
Thematic analysis
Rushforth et al,31 2016Exploration of PCPs’ perceived barriers to implementation of CPGs recommended practice for type II diabetes in primary careSR QualitativeUSA, UK, Europe but non-UK, Asia, Africa, Australia,
PCPs only such as GPs, family medicine specialists, medical offers, government policy makers, nurses
Sample size: not specified in some included studies
Type II diabetesYes-National Institute for Health and Care
Excellence checklist
A framework was used to guide the data analysis
Slade et al, 201532Exploration of PCPs’ perceptions regarding the enablers and barriers of guideline implementation for low back pain managementSR QualitativeCanada, UK, USA, Germany, New Zealand, Israel, Norway, Ireland, The Netherland17Participants: PCPs only including GPs, family practitioners, physiotherapists, chiropractors and occupational therapists sample size: 614Low back painYes-
CASP checklist for qualitative studies
Thematic analysis
Smeets et al, 201633Exploration of PCPs’ perceptions regarding barriers and enablers for managing heart failure patients in primary careSR QualitativeUK, Australia, Canada, Uzbekistan23Participants: GPs
Sample size: Not specified
Heart failureYes-CASP checklistThematic analysis
Swaithes et al, 202034Exploration of the influencing factors for the CPGs implementation in primary care for osteoarthritis managementSR QualitativeUK, The Netherlands4Participants:
PCPs including GPs and nurses, and patients.
Sample size: GPs (n=28), nurses (n=13) and patients (n=46)
OsteoarthritisYes-CASP checklistThematic analysis
Tan and Black, 2019 35Exploration of the barriers and facilitators to implementation of a guideline for HIV testingSR MixedUSA12Participants:
PCPs including GPs, nurses and social workers
Sample size: Not specified
HIV testingNot specifiedA framework was used to guide the data analysis
Unverzagt et al, 201436Exploration of the strategies of guideline implementation for cardiovascular diseases in primary careSR QuantitativeSpain, Canada, UK, USA, Belgium, Sweden, Israel, Taiwan, Pakistan, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, The Netherlands54Participants:
PCPs including physicians, pharmacists or nurses in primary care setting; and patients.
Sample size:
Physicians (n=8785), patients (n=2 56 550)
Cardiovascular diseasesYes-Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias toolMeta-analysis
Rubio-Valera et al, 2014 37Exploration of the barriers and facilitators for the implementation of primary prevention and health promotion (PP and HP) in primary careSR QualitativeUK, Denmark, USa,
Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, Germany,
Israel, Ireland, The Netherlands, Canada,
Australia, New Zealand
PCPs only, mainly including GPs and nurses
Sample size: around 880
Chronic diseases and health promotionYes-A modified checklist for quality appraisal of qualitative studiesMeta-ethnographic
Wood et al, 201738Exploration of the barriers and facilitators to implementing guideline recommendations for depression in primary careSR QualitativeUK, USA, Canada, Germany18Participants:
PCPs only such as GPs, primary care psychological therapies
Sample size: Not specified
CASP checklist for qualitative studies
Thematic analysis
  • *Hawker et al. Appraising the evidence: reviewing disparate data systematically. Qualitative health research. 2002 Nov;12(9):1284-99.

  • †Two of the included articles from one same study.

  • SR, systematic review.