Table 3

Cascade of care for HPV testing studies, by country

MalawiNigeriaSenegalUgandaZimbabweOverall
Nn (%)Nn (%)Nn (%)Nn (%)Nn (%)Nn (%)
Total tested23202320 (100)13441344 (100)16181618 (100)66116611 (100)38733873 (100)15 76615 766 (100)
Test result
 Negative23201246 (54)1344875 (65)16181403 (87)66114185 (63)38732145 (55)15 7669854 (63)
 Positive2320957 (41)1344302 (22)1618199 (12)66111827 (28)38731425 (37)15 7664710 (30)
Subtype: 16957245 (26)30248 (16)19916 (8)1827340 (19)1425-4710649 (14%)
Subtype: 18/45957193 (20)30254 (18)19928 (14)1827316 (17)1425-4710591 (13%)
Subtype: other high risk957733 (77)302251 (83)19988 (44)18271393 (76)1425-47102465 (52%)
 Invalid/error232047 (2)1344167 (12)16189 (1)661183 (1)3873207 (5)15 766513 (3)
 Missing232070 (3)13440 (0)16187 (0)6611516 (8)387396 (2)15 766689 (4)
Valid test results23202203 (95)13441177 (88)16181602 (99)66116012 (91)38733570 (92)15 76614 564 (92)
HPV positivity2203957 (43)1177302 (26)1602199 (12)60121827 (30)35701425 (40)14 5644710 (32)
Received results, HPV-negative1246614 (49)875544 (62)14031159 (83)41852596 (62)21451547 (72)98546460 (66)
Received results, HPV-positive957526 (55)302269 (89)199187 (94)18271224 (67)14251170 (82)47103376 (72)
 Linked to VIA/VAT526491 (93)269210 (78)187157 (84)1224748 (61)213*113 (53)2419*1719 (71)
 Received VIA/VAT491440 (90)210210 (100)157157 (100)748748 (100)1180†2735†
  VIA/VAT result
   Positive44081 (18)210104 (50)157143 (91)748157 (21)1180230 (19)2735715 (26)
   Negative440340 (77)210106 (50)1570 (0)748572 (76)1180943 (80)27351961 (72)
   Suspected of cancer4407 (2)2100 (0)15712 (8)74814 (2)11807 (0)273540 (1)
   Inconclusive44012 (3)2100 (0)1570 (0)7485 (1)11800 (0)273517 (1)
   Missing4400 (0)2100 (0)1572 (1)7480 (0)11800 (0)27352 (0)
VIA/VAT-positive, treatment and referral
 Received treatment8165 (80)104104 (100)143140 (98)157113 (72)230200 (87)715622 (87)
Thermal ablation6565 (100)104104 (100)140140 (100)11383 (73)2001 (1)622393 (63)
Cryotherapy650 (0)1040 (0)1400 (0)11327 (24)20041 (21)62268 (11)
LEEP650 (0)1040 (0)1400 (0)1133 (3)200158 (79)622161 (26)
 Referred813 (4)1040 (0)1430 (015732 (20)23023 (10)71558 (8)
 Other810 (0)1040 (0)1430 (0)1575 (3)2300 (0)7155 (1)
 No documentation8113 (16)1040 (0)1433 (2)1576 (4)2301 (0)71523 (3)
Suspected of cancer, referral
 Referred74 (57)0NA120 (0)1414 (100)76 (86)4024 (60)
 Colposcopy70 (0)0NA129 (75)140 (0)70 (0)409 (23)
 No documentation73 (43)0NA123 (25)140 (0)71 (14)407 (18)
  • *Nine hundred and fifty-seven women were removed from the denominator as they did not receive their result before receiving VIA, and therefore did not follow the cascade of care, of being linked to VIA after receiving their result.

  • †These 957 women are then added back into the cascade here, as they did receive VIA, along with 110 women who received VIA without ever receiving their HPV results (and the 113 who received results and then VIA).

  • HPV, human papillomavirus ; LEEP, Loop Electro Excision Procedure; VAT, visual assessment of the cervix for treatment ; VIA, visual inspection with acetic acid.